Indian Food, Vegetables, Fruits, and Places
Indian Food, Vegetables, Fruits, and Places

History of Bangalore (Bengaluru) 3000 BCE to present

History of Bangalore (Bengaluru) 3000 BCE  to 2020 CE ( present):

Bengaluru is one of the oldest land formations on earth because of the Peninsular Gneiss located at the Lalbagh Botanical Garden, This Monument is over a typical exposure of Peninsular Gneiss, a Geological term for the complex mixture of Granitic rocks extensively developed in Peninsular India. The Term was Coined by Dr. W.F. Smeeth of the Mysore Geological Department in the year 1916 CE. The Peninsular Gneiss is among the oldest rocks of the Earth Dating back to 3000 Million Years. The Antiquity of these Rocks has attracted Geologists all over the World and has Given Rise to Erudite Scientific papers on the evolution of the Earth by the pioneers of the Mysore Geological Department, Geological Survey of India, and Scholars From the Academy. Stone Quarry of this Genesis still continues to be endless source material for Research in the various branches of Earth Science. 

Bengaluru a land between 3 mountain rivers namely, Arkavathi, Dakshina pinakini, Vrishabhavathi Rivers. 
Bengaluru has much ancient history than what normally believed, it dates back even to Mahabharata, Pandavas Playground at Ivara Kandapura, below are some of the mind-blowing historical facts about Bengaluru which very few know:

Content Index as below, click to quickly jump to the relative chapter:

  1. Bengaluru during the prehistoric period, 3000 BCE.
  2. Bengaluru during the Ganga Dynasty (Western Gangas and the Nolambas), 6th to 10th Century.
  3. Bengaluru during the Chola Dynasty, 10th Century.
  4. Bengaluru during the Hoysala Dynasty, 11th and 12th Centuries.
  5. Bengaluru during the Vijayanagar Empire, 15th Century.
  6. Bengaluru during the Kempegowda, 15th Century.
  7. Bengaluru during the Marathas, 17th Century.
  8. Bengaluru during the Tipu Sultan and The Mysore Wodeyars Dynasty, 17th Century.
  9. Bangalore during the British 18th and 19th Century.
  10. Bangalore during the 19th and 20th Centuries.

#1. Bengaluru during the prehistoric period, 3000 BCE.

Prehistory of Bengaluru ( Bangalore): 

Early Human settlement pieces of evidence like Dolmens, standing stones, stone circles, stone tools, and other artifacts of Megalithic period has been discovered in the Bengaluru places like Bellandur, Koramangala (Dolmens dating back to 1500 BCE), Chikkajala, Bidarahalli, Jyothipura, Somapana Halli (Krishnaraja Puram Taluk of Bengaluru urban):

1.1 Vasantha Vallabharaya Temple also called Sri Vasantha Valli Nayaki Sametha Vallabharaya Swamy Devasthana (Paramapada Natha).  Bengaluru South Taluk, Uttarahalli-4 Hobli, Vasanthapura, Subramanyapura, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560061.
This is one of the ancient temples in Bengaluru and the Sthala Purana (Meaning local legend), says, Rishi Mandavya built the shrine, and Bengaluru then was known by the name “Kalyanpuri.” This Purana belongs to the prehistoric period.

Sri Vasantha Vallabharaya Swamy Temple HD pic ↓

Sri Vasantha Vallabharayaswamy Temple, Vasanth Pura, BengaluruSri Vasantha Vallabharaya Swamy Temple, Vasanth Pura, Bengaluru

Watch Video of Sri Vasantha Vallabharaya Swamy Temple, Vasanth Pura, Bengaluru

1.2 Ivara Kandapura also called Aigandapura and also pronounced locally as Aivara Kandapura.  Bengaluru North Taluk,  Hesaraghatta-1, Tirumala Pura, T.b Cross, Hesaraghatta Main Road, Bengaluru 560088.

Ivara Kandapura means (Ivara) means five (Kandapura) means Seen related to Five Pandavas who had spent some time here. There are Five Shrines dedicated to Five Pandavas namely Dharmeshwara, Nakuleshwara, Sahadeshwara, Arjuneshwara, Kuntigudi, and Bheemeshwara temple is also nearby. The 1100 CE Inscriptions in the Tamil language reveal it is as a Chola temple, and then during that time it was one of the most celebrated Chola Agrahara, Agrahara means Township. 

Aigandapura (Ivar Kandapura), Sri Dharmeshwara Temple HD pic ↓

Aigandapura (Ivar Kandapura)
Aigandapura (Ivar Kandapura), Sri Dharmeshwara Temple

Videos of Aigandapura (Ivar Kandapura / Aivara kandapura), Sri Dharmeshwara Temple.

1.3 Gavi gute also called Gavipura:

Gavigute also called Gavipura a small hillock located on the Northside of Bengaluru, has the oldest Cave temple which locally is believed where Sri Agastya Maharishi Lived and performed penance, by worshipping the Kambada Narasimha Swamy. 

Gavigutte also called Gavipura HD pic ↓

Gavigute also called Gavipura
Gavigutte also called Gavipura

Videos of Gavigutte ( Gavipura) ancient caves and Bheemana Hejje:

1.4 Discovery of Roman Emperor Coins: 
The recent discovery of Roman coins in Yeshwanthpura and the H.A.L area of Bengaluru which dates back to 27 BCE, gives a hint about the ancient trade route to Rome(Italy) and to further down towards the south of India.

Yeshwanthpura present (2020 ) Bengaluru pic ↓

Yeshwanthpura, Bengaluru 2020 CE
Yeshwanthpura, Bengaluru 2020 CE

Video of Yeshwanthpura present (2020 ) Bengaluru:

1.5 Kalabhras the early settlers in Bengaluru During 5th Century CE: 
Historian and Regional Director – Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) Mr. Sk Aruni states that the first settlers in Bengaluru were the Kalabhras, who were cattle gazers and had made Bengaluru their home in 5th Century CE on the banks of the Rivers Arkavathy and Dakshina Pinakini both are mountain rivers originates from present-day Nandi hills. The rock formation in Bugle Rock, Lalbagh Botanical garden, Basavanagudi, Kalavarahalli, Ragihalli ( Bannerghatta forest) Megalithic remains are available even today.

Arkavathy River, Shot near Makali Bengaluru HD pic ↓

Arkavathi river, a mountain River in Bangalore
Arkavathi river, a mountain River in Bangalore

Video of Arkavathy River 

1.6 Megalithic burial site Ragihalli: 

Megalithic burial sites are found in Ragihalli Forest area, inside Bannerghatta National park, Bengaluru.

Megalithic burial site Ragihalli, Bannerghatta Forest area HD pic ↓

Megalithic burial site Ragihalli, Bannerghatta Forest area
Megalithic burial site Ragihalli, Bannerghatta Forest area

Video of Ragihalli Forest Reserve:

1.7. Mysterious Rock at Suvarnamukhi, the pre-historic site of Ragihalli is nearby: 

The Mysterious Rock man-made models at the Suvarnamukhi hill, the pre-historic site of Ragihalli where Megalithic evidence is found is also nearby. 

Mysterious Rock at Suvarnamukhi, pic ↓

Mysterious Rock at Suvarnamukhi
Mysterious Rock at Suvarnamukhi

Video of Mysterious Rock at Suvarnamukhi:

1.8. the pre-historic site at Chikkajala

At the pre-historic site at Chikkajala, about 24 km north of Bengaluru, some cist burials found believed to be more than 3000 years old gives a hint of ancient civilization in Bengaluru. More than two hundred years old Chikkajala Fort and an ancient Anjaneya temple still survive.

Chikkajala Fort, Chikkajala Bengaluru
Chikkajala Fort, Chikkajala Bengaluru

Videos of Chikkajala Fort:

#2 The Ganga Dynasty and Nolambas 6th Century to 10th Century CE: 

The Ganga Dynasty an early Dynasty of Karnataka started in 350 CE and ending during 1000 CE was one of the major powerhouses in south India, the dynasty which lasted 600 years has many contributions to the Culture, architecture, and Jainism in South India. Ganga Dynasty which started from Kolar as their Capital later moved to Talakadu on the banks of the River Cauvery and also made Manyapura as their capital ( Manyapura is now called Manne is a village in Nelamangala, a taluk in Bengaluru Rural District). 
Please note that This Ganga Dynasty (350 CE to 1000 CE) is referred to as the Western Gangas by historians to distinguish them from the Eastern gangas who in the latter part of the centuries ruled over present-day Odisha.  

2.1 Manne ( Earlier called Manyapura was the Capital of Gangas (Western Gangas): 
“Manne” is a village in Bangalore rural district, Nelamangala taluk holds one of the astonishing History, that is Manne was the Capital of Gangas (Western) for some time.  The 10th Century remains of 3 monuments that can be found here even today 2020 CE.  The Gangas administered Bangalore from here itself. 

10th Century Kapileshwara Temple by Ganga Dynasty HD Pic ↓

Kapileshwara Temple by Ganga Dynasty (Western Ganga), Nelamangala Taluk, Bengaluru
Kapileshwara Temple by Ganga Dynasty (Western Ganga), Nelamangala Taluk, Bengaluru

Videos of Manne (Ganga Capital 10th Century)

2.2 Veeragallu ( in English “Hero Stones”) in Bengaluru: 

Veeragallu is a Kannada term which means Herostones, these are inscription carved on a block of rock or stone usually in the shape of a Tablet. Hero stones mention the heroic deeds of a soldier or an order by the King, or Donations made towards a village or temple.  These Hero stones play a major role in understanding history since they have a record of dates in them.  Hero stones of the Ganga dynasty period have been discovered in the areas of Bengaluru like Kodigehalli, Medihalli, Nagondanahalli, Varthur, Krishnaraja Puram (KR Puram), and Begur. 
Below pic taken at Begur Panchalingeshwara temple complex, multiple Herostones in one single frame, all are having a soldier with a sword and other weapons

Hero stones, at Begur temple 8th Century CE
Hero stones, at Begur temple 8th Century CE

2.3. Panchalingeshwara Temple Complex in Begur.  Bengaluru South Taluk,  Begur-3 Hobli, Begur Main Rd, Begur, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560068.
Nageshwara Temple and Panchalingeshwara Temple shrines in Panchalingeshwara Temple Complex in Begur, is located in Bangalore, dates back to Western Ganga Dynasty Kings Nitimarga aka Ereganga Neetimarga (843-870 CE) and Eriyappa Nitimarga II aka Ereganga Neetimarga II(907-921 CE). This temple complex houses an inscription in the Halegannada language (Old Kannada), dated 890 CE, which describes a “Bengaluru war” (modern Bangalore city) discovered by the epigraphist R. Narasimhachar and the inscription recorded in “Epigraphia Carnatica” (Vol 10 supplementary). And This remains the earliest evidence of the existence of a place called Bengaluru. 

To Identify any Ganga architecture is very simple, they have used elephants more in their carvings below image taken at Pancha Linga Nageshwara Temple complex, Begur,⇓.

Pancha Linga Nageshwara Temple complex, Begur, Bengaluru
Pancha Linga Nageshwara Temple complex, Begur, Bengaluru

Videos of Panchalingeshwara Temple Complex in Begur:

2.4 Gangavara a village in Devanahalli taluk of Bengaluru Rural District:
At Gangavara Sri Someshwara Temple built by Cholas in 8th Century CE, a stone inscription states that the rule of Gangas in and around Devanahalli, Bhoga nandeeshwara, Kammasandra, Chowdappana Halli, Nallur areas.

 Below is the pic of Stone Inscription (written in the Tamil Language) taken at Gangavara, Devanahalli taluk, Bengaluru Rural District, Sri Prasanna Parvathi Sametha, Sri Someshwara Temple a Chola Architecture ⇓.

Sri Prasanna Parvathi Sametha, Sri Someshwara Temple, Gangavara, Devanahalli Chola Architecture
Sri Prasanna Parvathi Sametha, Sri Someshwara Temple, Gangavara, Devanahalli Chola Architecture

Video Sri Prasanna Parvathi Sametha, Sri Someshwara Temple, Gangavara, Devanahalli Chola Architecture

#3 Bengaluru during the Chola Dynasty, 10th Century.

With the Advent of The Cholas the Ganga dynasty ends, The Chola Dynasty one of the longest-ruling dynasties in world history, which ruled between the 3rd century BCE to 13th Century CE, perhaps the only dynasty in Indian history having Naval Military supremacy, also had ruled Bengaluru in 10th Century CE.  Some of the remarkable contributions of Cholas to temples around Bengaluru are mentioned below: 
After defeating Gangas, the Cholas who had captured the present-day Southern part of Bengaluru, and they use to call it “Nikarila cholamandala” during the year circa 1024 CE. The areas now like Kadugodi, Nelamangala, Domlur, Hebbal, Huskur, Kengeri, Vasanthpura, Gangavara, Chowdappanahalli, and other areas in Bengaluru still have some temples, and stone inscriptions were written mainly in the Tamil language showcases the dominance of Cholas in Bengaluru then. Few of the Chola temples still survive in Bengaluru details of those temples and stone inscriptions are as below:

3.1 Tombalur:
Sri Vasantha Vallabharaya Swamy Temple has one interesting Stone inscription which states that the area now Vasanthpura was called Tombalur, which means land of thick forest, sages meditated here and spent the time Penance here in the caves, an old cave temple of Sri Bhavani Shankara and two scared ponds, out which one has resorted now:

 Below is the pic of Resorted Kalyani at Vasanthpura, Bangalore ⇓.

Resorted Kalyani at Vasanth Pura, Bangalore
Resorted Kalyani at Vasanth Pura, Bangalore

Video Resorted Kalyani at Vasanthpura, Bangalore

3.2 Chokkanathaswamy temple, Domlur, Bengaluru:

Sree Devi, Bhoodevi Sametha, Sree Chokkanatha Swamy Temple, Dedicated to Lord Sri Vishnu, renovated during the 20th century CE, was built during the Chola dynasty in 11th Century CE. There are a number of inscriptions in the temple in Tamil language, one inscription dated 1270 CE states that poysala Vira Ramananada made donations to this temple, remember ( Hoysalas also did rule this place, for some time Hoysalas called themselves Poysalas this is covered in chapter 4.1 below please continue reading ).
Another inscription the current Domlur is mentioned as Tombalur, ( remember an inscription in Vasanthpura also mention that area as Tombalur), the inscription also mentions the tributes, taxes, and donations made by Devaraya II of Vijayanagar Empire, mentions that the land around Tombalur (Domlur) were offered to the main deity Sokkapperumal (this is a Tamil word, similar to Chokkanatha in Kannada), yet another inscription of 1290 CE states about the donations from the Tombalur by Poysala Vira Ramananda.
At Sree Chokkanatha Swamy temple, One Kannada inscription mentions the date as per Hindu Panchanga as ” Swasthi Sri shakavarusha 1312 udari Samvatsara Bhadrapada, Samovara (Monday) which translates to 1440 CE Monday.  on this date the Veera Deva Raya Maharaya orders from his throne from Sonddekoppa ( a Village near Nelamangala) regarding the donations made to this temple.  This Temple of Sree Chokkanatha though renovated few times holds some mind-blowing Astrophysics calculation of the Movement of the Sun along with the other 5 planets. 

Chokkanathaswamy temple, Domlur, Bengaluru HD pic ↓

Sri Chokkanatha Swamy Temple, Domlur, Bangalore Urban
Sri Chokkanatha Swamy Temple, Domlur, Bangalore Urban

Videos of Sri Chokkanatha Swamy Temple, Domlur, Bangalore Urban:


3.3 Mukthi Natheshwara temple, Binnamangala, Nelamangala taluk, Bangalore Rural District.

The Tamil language inscriptions in this temple dated to the year 1110 CE belongs to the Kulathunga Chola period.

Mukthi Natheshwara temple Binnamangala HD pic ↓

Mukthi Natheshwara temple, Binnamangala, 11th Century Chola Temple
Mukthi Natheshwara temple, Binnamangala, 11th Century Chola Temple

Video of Mukthi Natheshwara temple Binnamangala:

3.4 Kashi Vishveshwara Swamy Temple, Nelamangala, Bangalore Rural District:

Kashi Vishveshwara Swamy Temple is yet another Chola temple dates back to the 11th Century CE. 

Sri Kashi Vishveshwara Swamy Temple, Chola Architecture Nelamangala HD pic ↓

Sri Kashi Vishveshwara Swamy Temple, Chola Architecture Nelamangala
Sri Kashi Vishveshwara Swamy Temple, Chola Architecture Nelamangala

Videos of Kashi Vishveshwara Swamy Temple, Chola Architecture Nelamangala;

3.5 Sri Someshwara Temple, old Madiwala:

Sri Someshwara Swamy temple at old Madiwala (called Hale madiwala locally) has many Tamil inscriptions on the walls itself, the architecture of Chola’s is followed here. Even though this temple got renovated recently, it still retains the original walls and inscriptions intact. 

Sri Someshwara Temple, old Madiwala HD image ⇓

Sri Someshwara Temple, old Madiwala, Bengaluru
Sri Someshwara Temple, old Madiwala, Bengaluru

3.6 Pattandur Lake dates back to the time of Rajendra Chola, the son of Rajaraja Chola,

Pattandur lake nearby a few stone inscriptions have been found regarding the grants made to surrounding agriculture village. 

3.7. Kashi Vishveshwara temple, Kadugodi, Bengaluru:

Kashi Vishveshwara temple Chola temple Built during Circa 11th Century dedicated to Lord Shiva at Kadugodi in the middle of the forest then. Kaadu is a Kannada term for Forest, Gudi means shrine, so the name. 

Kashi Vishveshwara temple, Kadugodi, Bengaluru photo ⇓

Kashi Vishveshwara temple, Kadugodi, Bengaluru
Kashi Vishveshwara temple, Kadugodi, Bengaluru

3.8 Madduramma temple at Huskur, Bengaluru: 

Sri Madduramma Devi Temple, Gattihalli Road, Gulimangala, Huskuru, Anekal Taluk, Bangalore, though this temple recently not renovated, still retains the old Charm, was built during the Chola regim in 11th Century CE. 

Madduramma temple at Huskur HD pic ↓

Madduramma temple at Huskur, Bangalore
Madduramma temple at Huskur, Bangalore

Videos of Madduramma temple at Huskur:

3.9 Sri Dharmeshwara temple, Aigandapura, Bengaluru

Aigandapura also called Ivara Kandapura / Aivara kandapura flourished during the reign of Cholas, the Tamil language inscription dated 1130 CE at Sri Dharmeshwara Temple mentions Aigandapura as one of the prominent Agrahara at that period. ( Agrahara is a Kannada language word in English it means township).

Aivarakandapura a 11th Century Chola Agrahara  HD pic ↓

Tamil language inscription at Ivara Kandapura, Bengaluru
Tamil language inscription at Ivara Kandapura, Bengaluru

3.10 Sri Someshwara Temple, Kengeri, Bengaluru:

Sri Prasanna Someshwara Swamy Temple 1050 CE, Kengeri Fort Area, Bengaluru, A Tamil language inscription dated 1050 CE, mentions that Chola King Rajendra Chola, had made donations to this temple, Kengeri during that time was fertile land since it was on the banks of the River Vrishabhavathi River (a tributary to the river Arkavathi).

1050 CE Sri Someshwara Temple, Kengeri, Bengaluru pic ↓

Sri Prasanna Someshwara Swamy Temple 1050 CE, Kengeri Fort Area, Bengaluru,
Sri Prasanna Someshwara Swamy Temple 1050 CE, Kengeri Fort Area, Bengaluru,

Video of 1050 CE Sri Someshwara Temple, Kengeri:

3.11 The 12th Century Nallur tamarind grove:

11th Century Nallur tamarind grove, and Chennakeshava Temple, built during King Rajendra Chola in the year 1105 CE, among the thousands of trees around 300 trees still survive.

12th Century Nallur tamarind grove HD pic ↓

12th Century Nallur tamarind grove, Hoskote, Bangalore Rural District
11th Century Nallur tamarind grove, Hoskote, Bangalore Rural District

Videos of 11th Century Nallur tamarind grove:

3.12. Ananda Lingeshwara Swamy temple Hebbal, Bengaluru, Chola Temple:

Located on the small hilltop called Ananda Giri near Hebbal, built in the reign of Cholas in the 13th century. the Cave has the Sri Kalabhairaveshwara as deity, and at the top Lord shiva as Ananda Lingeshwara.

11th Century Ananda Lingeshwara Swamy temple pic ↓

Ananda Lingeshwara Swamy temple Hebbal, Bengaluru, Chola Temple
Ananda Lingeshwara Swamy temple Hebbal, Bengaluru, Chola Temple

Video of 11th Century Ananda Lingeshwara Swamy temple:

3.13. Halasuru also called Ulsoor, Sri Someshwara Temple, Bengaluru:

Halasuru a locality of Bengaluru City is one of the ancient sites here, it is called Mandaavya Maharishi Kshetra who did penance here, remember chapter 3.1 in the legend of Vasanthpura, the same rishi here also.  Here this temple dedicated to Lord Sri Someshwara (Lord Sri Shiva) is an ancient temple built by the Chola dynasty in the 10th Century, later it was further developed by the Vijayanagar Kings under the Hiriya Kempegowda. 

Sri Someshwara Temple, Halasuru Bengaluru pic ↓

Sri Someshwara Swamy Temple, Halasuru, Bengaluru
Sri Someshwara Swamy Temple, Halasuru, Bengaluru

Video of Sri Someshwara Temple, Halasuru (Ulsoor)

#4 Bengaluru during the Hoysalas, 11-12th centuries. 

Circa 1120 CE the Bengaluru region was captured by the Hoysalas under Veera Balla II after defeating the Cholas in the battle of Talakad. The story of naming Bengaluru as Benda Kālu Ooru has been credited to King Veera Ballala II since he was offered boiled soya beans by a local lady when he was lost here, though the Benga valuru and Bengaluru term was used much earlier (refer chapter 2.3 in the Panchalingeshwara temple complex).

Hoysalas initially followed the Tamil Language in Bengaluru, and they were referred to as Poysalas in many inscriptions. A 1304 CE stone inscription discovered at Doddanekundi village in Bengaluru,  mentions that the local village name as Nerkundi, for donations made to Shivagange temple.

4.1. Shivagange hill. 

Shivagange located in Nelamangala taluk of Bengaluru rural district and just 15 km from Manne ( Manyapura) is actually a huge mountain,  about 2500 feet in height.  On a clear sky day, Bengaluru is clearly visible from the top of this hill, it is famous for the ancient cave temples of Sri Gangadhareshwara and Sri Honnadevi, in many inscriptions found in Bengaluru the grants and donations made to this temple has been mentioned, this is historically an important place as well as the architecture of various styles like Gangas, Hoysalas cane be found here. 

12th Century Sri Gangadhareshwara Temple, Shiva Gange, Hoysala Architecture HD pic ⇓

Sri Gangadhareshwara Temple, Shiva Gange, Hoysala Architecture
Sri Gangadhareshwara Temple, Shiva Gange, Hoysala Architecture

4.2. Sri Champakadhama Swamy temple, Bannerghatta, Bengaluru;

The 12th century Hoysala inscription of this temple states that the Sri Champakadhama Swamy temple was built during the reign of Tamilarasa in the year 1257 CE at the foothills of Vahinigiri betta, the top of this hill one ancient Sri Lakshmi Narasimha swamy temple is there, and here an incomplete foundation of a temple in hoysala style can also be found.

Sri Champakadhama Swamy temple HD pic and Video ⇓

Sri Champakadhama Swamy temple
Sri Champakadhama Swamy temple

4.3. Sri Chennakeshava Swamy Temple at Haragadde, Anekal, Bengaluru:

During the regime of Hoysala kings built many temples in Anekal, Jiganai, Haragadde, Bannerghatta, these are all nearby areas to Hosur ( present-day a taluk of Krishnagiri district in the Tamilnadu state of India) which was the part of the Hoysala Kingdom in the 13th Century CE.  The 13th Century Sri Chandra Choodeshwara Temple at Hosur is still in good shape.

Sri Chennakeshava Swamy Temple at Haragadde, Anekal, Bengaluru HD photo ⇓, This temple is also called Shri Bhooneela Sameta Channakeshava swamy Devasthana ⇓

Sri Chennakeshava Swamy Temple at Haragadde
Sri Chennakeshava Swamy Temple at Haragadde

Video of Sri Chennakeshava Swamy Temple at Haragadde, Anekal, Bengaluru ⇓, This temple is also called Shri Bhooneela Sameta Channakeshava swamy Devasthana ⇓

4.4 Doddaballapura taluk of Bengaluru rural District:

Doddaballapura was in the stronghold of the Hoysalas since Doddaballapura’s name is believed to derive from the Hoysala King Veera Ballala II.  Many stone inscriptions found here belong to Hoysala has now being preserved in the Government Archaeological museum at Kasturba Road, Bengaluru City. 

#5. Bengaluru during the Vijayanagar Dynasty, 15th Century CE.

During the 15th Century Hoysalas downfall started and a new Empire called Vijayanagar rise to power who controlled almost Entire South India. Inscriptions at Marathalli Bengaluru dates back to the year 1508 CE at the time of Veenarasimha Raya of Vijayanagara Empire.
Inscriptions found at Bengaluru local villages like Chikkabettahalli, Doddakannelli, Anekal, Hesaraghatta, Ulsoor Someshwara temple, Kodigehalli, Domlur Chokkanatha temple, Thindlu Sri Veerabhadra temple, and Shivagange Sri Gangadhareshwara temple, mentions the grants and donations made by Vijayanagar Emperors to the respective temples.

5.1. The Kodigehalli 1431 CE inscription of Vijayanagar Empire: Bangalore North taluk, Yashavantapura-2 Hobli, Kodigehalli, Maruthi Layout, Virupakshapura, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560092.

The Kodigehalli 1431 CE inscription written in Halegannada (meaning old Kannada Script) Mentions the grants of revenues from Virupakshapura a village of Devasamudra, by the then Emperor Deva Raya II of Vijayanagara Empire, and performed by the king of the province of Yelahanka Nadu. to mark this grants Virupakshapura was renamed after the Emperor Deva Raya II to  Vijaya devarayanapura, presently in the 20th Century, it is again renamed as Virupakshapura itself. please note that Virupaksha is the name of Lord Shiva, the beloved god of the Vijayanagar Empire, at Hampi Lord Virupaksha temple is world-renowned. This inscription which was abandoned now moved to the nearby Halekote Sri Anjaneya temple premises and well-persevered images and video of the same is as below. 

The Kodigehalli inscription 1431 CE ↓

The Kodigehalli 1431 CE inscriptionhe Kodigehalli 1431 CE inscription

5.2. Sri Veerabhadra Swamy Temple at Thindlu, 1000 years old temple in Bengaluru: 

Thindlu a neighborhood of Virupakshapura Just 2 km from the spot of Kodigehalli houses an interesting old monument, is Sri Veerabhadra Swamy temple which believed to be at least 1000 years old, though renovated in recent times, A stone inscription and the main deity still retained. 

Sri Veerabhadra Swamy Temple at Thindlu HD pic and Video ⇓

Veerabhadra swamy Temple, Thindlu, Bengaluru
Veerabhadra swamy Temple, Thindlu, Bengaluru

5.3. Chikkabettahalli Stone inscription 1524 CE (Vijayanagara Empire): Location Sri Ramanjaneya Temple, Chikkabettahalli Village, Yelahanka, Bengaluru North Taluk.

Chikkabettahalli Stone inscription 1524 CE ( recorded as inscription no 19, volume 9, Epigraphia of Carnatica), Commissioned by none other than the great Emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya, the most renowned Emperor of the Vijayanagar Empire. The inscription mentions the grants made to the Thiru Venkatanatha temple at the adjoining village of Singapura.
Chikkabettahalli meaning if translated to the English language, Chikka means small, Betta means Hill, Halli means village so Chikkabettahalli means a small hill village, just 1 km from this village Doddabettahalli is also situated if translated to the English language, Dodda means Big, Betta means Hill, Halli means Village so Doddabettahalli means a Big hill village. Interestingly Both Chikkabettahalli and Doddabettahalli are the highest natural points in Bengaluru at 962 m (3,156 ft) major parts of Bengaluru are visible from here, Yelahanka which was an administrative center during the 15th-century  is also nearby.  

Chikkabettahalli Stone inscription 1524 CE (Vijayanagara Empire) Pic and Video: 

Chikkabettahalli Stone inscription 1524 CE, Bengaluru
Chikkabettahalli Stone inscription 1524 CE, Bengaluru

#5 Bengaluru during the Kempegowda, 15th Century.

The early 15th Century saw the rise of Hiriya Kempegowda (Kempegowda I as historians refer him) who was palegara (chieftain) of Yelahanka (present-day a taluk in Bengaluru Urban District), accredited as the founder of modern-day Bengaluru city. He was a contemporary of the Vijayanagar Empire, took over the throne of Yelahanka in the year 1513 CE.
As per one legend when Kempegowda on a hunt near Kodigehalli an 8 km from Yelahanka saw an unusual thing that one Hare chasing a dog, mesmerized by this scene he named that area Gandu Bhoomi (which means Land of Heros).

Kempegowda was an able administrator, and a person with Visionary, which impressed the Vijayanagara Emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya and his successor (brother) Achyuta Devaraya they had offered him to build Bengaluru as a nagara (nagara means City).
As per guidance from Vijayanagar Empire, in the Year 1537 CE, by clearing the forest area Kempegowda starts building a mud Fort, lakes for water supply, Petes (petes means Town or Market place) for multiple commodities, and the area was with a drainage system, well-laid roads, and this area was enclosed with four gates (namely, Yelahanka gate, Halasuru gate, Kengeri gate, and Anekal gate), and to protect this place four watchtowers at outskirts of the town. Impressed by this work, the Vijayanagara emperor Achyuta Raya gifted him 6 more villages to Kempegowda I.

According to historian Mr. Fazlul Hasan’s Bangalore though the Centuries, Kempegowda had made a blunder by supplying his own currency for circulation in his territory, which provoked the Emperor Jagadeva Raya of Vijayanagar Empire, to imprison him (Kempegowda) at Anegundi (present-day a village Near Hampi of Ballari District) for 5 years. Although, Kempegowda took a keen interest in learning and acquired a great amount of knowledge on the religion, Administration, and governance in the prison. the knowledge of Shaivism (worship of Lord Shiva as supreme god) inspired him to build and renovated the temples in Bengaluru, Such as Gavi Gangadhareshwara temple, Sri Someshwara temple in Halasuru, Rangatha Swamy temple at Chikpete. 

The anticlimax of the Kempegowdas is that after the downfall of the Vijayanagara empire, When Kempegowda II’s son, Kempegowda III took over the Bengaluru, it was not a friendly atmosphere with neighboring provinces, which forced the chieftains of Adil shah from the sultanate of Bijapur (presently a district in Karnataka called as Vijayapura), to conquer Bengaluru.

Shahaji was the chieftain under, King Adil Shah, who forced Kempegowda to leave Bengaluru. Kempegowda after expelling from Bengaluru in the 1638 CE, Moved on to Magadi which is a hill area 60 km from the main Bengaluru (presently Magadi is a taluk in Ramanagara District) and started building a new fort, however in the year 1728 CE the Wodeyars of the Mysore Dynasty attacked Kempegowda and it ended the Yelahanka chieftain reign in Bengaluru, Shahaji took over the Bengaluru in the 17th Century this story continues in chapter 6. 

presently after 483 years, Bengaluru has grown 5000 times more than what the founder had built, but still retains some of the iconic structures even today, below are the monuments which were built during the era of Kempegowda the founder of modern-day Bengaluru. 

in the Year 2015 CE, the Tomb of Kempegowda was discovered near a village called Kempapura near Magadi, and modern-day Bengaluru has many Layouts, Gardens, and Bus station, Bengaluru International Airport is named after Kempegowda, the chief architect of Bengaluru.

5.1. Yelahanka the earlier capital of Kempegowda:

The area of Yelahanka existed prior to the 12th Century, it was called “Ilaipakka naadu” this a Tamil language word, since at that time the Cholas were ruling. An Inscription found in Doddaballapura Taluk dated 1267 CE record “Dechi Devarasa” a sub-king under the King Narasimha III of Hoysala Dynasty, ruling the region Yelahanka as his Capital. Yelahanka was called by the name Elavanka which gradually became Yelahanka.

5.2. Bengaluru Fort started as a mud fort in the year 1537 CE : 

As per guidance from the Vijayanagar Empire, in the Year 1537 CE, by clearing the forest area Kempegowda starts building a mud Fort, lakes for water supply, Petes (petes means Town or Market place) for multiple commodities, and the area was with a drainage system, well-laid roads, and this area was enclosed with four gates (namely, Yelahanka gate, Halasuru gate, Kengeri gate, and Anekal gate), and to protect this place four watchtowers at outskirts of the town. Impressed by this work, the Vijayanagara emperor Achyuta Raya gifted him 6 more villages to Kempegowda I.

Bengaluru Fort pic ⇓

Bengaluru fort (1510 CE – 1570 CE)
Bengaluru fort

Video of Bengaluru Fort:

5.3. Petes of Bengaluru year 1537 CE during the regime of Kempegowdas:

While building the town of Bengaluru in 1537 CE, Pete System Founded by Kempegowda which had highly impressed Vijayanagara Emperor Achyuta Raya, who further gifted him 6 more villages.  Kempegowda was a visionary while developing Bengaluru initially developed a Pete System (Pete means Town or Market area), For each commodity, a separate Pete was allocated and named after that commodity, and various vendors / Traders / Merchants traded only that commodity in that Pete. below are the names of Pete and the Commodity of which they use to sell/Trade over there, Below are some of the Petes (Towns) during his regime,  

  • Akkipete, Akki is a Kannada language word which means rice grains, Pete for Rice merchants.
  • Tharagupete, Tharagu means firewood, Pete for Firewood Merchants.
  • Aralepete, Arale means Castor seeds, Pete for Castor oil Merchants
  • Balepete, Bale means Bangle, Pete for Bangles Merchants.
  • Upparpete, Uppar means salt, Pete for Salt Merchants.
  • Kumbharpete, Kumbhara means a person who makes vessels and utensils made out of Mud, Pete for Mud utensils merchants.
  • Ballapurpete, Ballapur means Doddaballapura maybe for the Merchants from Doddaballapura.
  • Chikpete, Chika means small, a Pete of smaller size. 
  • Doddapete, Dodda means Big, a Pete of Bigger size
  • Ganigarapete, Ganiga means oil producers, Pete for Oil Merchants. 
  • Gollarapet, Gollara means cowherd, Pete for Milk and Milk products like Ghee, Cheese, Curd, and Buttermilk.
  • Halasurpet, Halasuru Pete dedicated for the Merchants from Halasuru which 8km away.
  • Kurubarapet, Kuruba means Shepard, Pete for Sheep trading.
  • Mamulpet, Mamul means General, Pete for General Merchants. 
  • Muthyalapet, Muthyal means Pearl, Pete for Pearl Merchants.
  • Nagarathapet, Nagaratha means Goldsmiths, Pete for Gold Jewelers.
  • Ragipete, Ragi is a Kannada word, it means Finger Millets, Pete for Ragi Merchants.
  • Sunnakalpet, Sunnakal is a Kannada word, it Means Limestones, which were used to paint buildings, Pete for Limestone Merchants.

Even after 485 years of their establishment, these Petes’ names remain the same, but the commodities have changed and continued as the main market area of present Bengaluru City in the year 2020 CE also. 

5.4. Gates of Bengaluru year 1537 CE during the regime of Kempegowdas:

Kempegowda has initially built a mud fort around the Pete area and it had 4 gates named, Halasuru gate, Yelahanka gate, Kengeri gate, and Anekal gate. These gates named like that because Halasuru gate was facing the direction of Halasuru which is 8km away, Yelahanka gate named since it was facing the direction of Yelahanka which is 19 km away. Kengeri gate is in the direction of Kengeri which is 16 km away. Anekal gate is in the direction of Anekal which is 38 km away. These gate names also give a hint that to Bengaluru Pete area, these towns (Yelahanka, Kengeri, Anekal, Halasuru) were the nearest major town area at that time.  However, these gates do not exist now, only a landmark at Yelahanka gate named (Sri Anjaneya Swamy Temple Yelahanka gate) exists presently called Mysore Bank Circle. 

Sri Anjaneya Swamy Temple Yelahanka gate ⇓

Sri Anjaneya Swamy Temple Yelahanka gate, Bengaluru
Sri Anjaneya Swamy Temple Yelahanka gate, Bengaluru

Video of Sri Anjaneya Swamy Temple Yelahanka gate ⇓

5.5. Lakes of Bengaluru year 1537 CE during the regime of Kempegowdas:

Since there are no major Rivers flowing at the Bengaluru, Kempegowda had constructed few lakes around the Bengaluru Fort area at that time for Agriculture and drinking water purposes, namely: 

  • Dhamambudhi Lake named after the Dharmaraya of Mahabharata was for irrigation purposes, at present it has turned to Kempegowda Bus Stand.
  • Sampigehalli Lake for Drinking water purposes., at present, it has turned into Kanteerava stadium. 
  • Ulsoor lake (Halasuru Lake) for agriculture purposes, at present, the lake is well maintained with boating facilities. 
  • Yediyur Lake for agriculture purposes, at present, the lake is well maintained with boating facilities. 
  • Kempambudhi Lake was built near the famous Gavi Gangadhareshwara temple its an ancient cave temple, there was an underground tunnel through which a stream was following at that time, the Kempambudhi lake well planned and built-in such a way that, this lake acts as the catchment area of that stream.  The water management was well developed that the outlets for water so well controlled with stone-built valves. 

Stone valves to control water flow at Kempambudhi Lake pic

Stone Valves at Kempambudhi Lake, Bengaluru
Stone Valves at Kempambudhi Lake, Bengaluru

Video of Kempambudhi Lake ⇓

5.6. Watchtowers of Bengaluru year 1537 CE during the regime of Kempegowdas:
Kempegowda II during his reign built 5 watchtowers at the outskirts of the Pete area, at Halasuru (which is in the East direction), Lalbagh (which is in the South directions), Sadashivanagar (which is in North Direction), Chamarajpet (which in West direction), and also at Bugle Rock.  at these watchtowers which are at the higher plateau was giving the long-distance views from here a person would stand with Bugle and give alarms of any dangers, and also it was a custom that every evening use to make sound from the bugle as an indication of everything was all correct for that day. 

  • Bugle Rock watchtower located inside Bugle rock Park, Basavangudi, Bengaluru.

Stone sculpture of Person with a bugle, at Bugle rock park, Bengaluru pic

Stone idol of a person with bugle at Bugle rock park, Bengaluru
Stone idol of a person with bugle at Bugle rock park, Bengaluru
  • Lalbagh Watchtower located inside Lalbagh Botanical Garden Built on Peninsular Gneiss Rock,  Bengaluru. 

Lalbagh Watchtower Hd pic⇓


5.7. Temples of Bengaluru during the regime of Kempegowdas:

No history of any King or Emperor gets complete without the mention of building Temples or Contribution made towards it,  like Bengaluru Founder Kempegowda had also built, renovated, contributed to many temples, few forts in the city,  as mentioned below. 

  • Dodda Basavanagudi also called Big Bull Temple situated in Bull Temple Road Basavanagudi, next to Bugle Rock Park. Basava means bull, but here the Basava referred to is the Nandi, a demi-god who is beloved by Lord Shiva himself, you won’t find any Shiva temple without the Nandi. This Nandi also works as a vehicle for Lord Shiva. This temple was built in the year 1537 CE by Kempe Gowda in Vijayanagar architectural style. This temple houses one of the largest idols of Nandi in entire India caved out of Single monolith rock, the height of 4.6 meters (15 feet) and the width is 6.1 meters (20 feet) long.  The annual Groundnut fair, (Kadalekai Parishe) is quite popular in Bengaluru. 

Dodda Basavanagudi also called Big Bull Temple Photo ⇓

Dodda Basavanagudi also called Big Bull Temple
Dodda Basavanagudi also called Big Bull Temple

Dodda Basavanagudi also called Big Bull Temple video ⇓

  • Gavi Gangadhareshwara Temple is an ancient temple built in the Vedic period by Gautama Maharishi and Bharadwaja Maharshi, later in the year 1545 CE Kempegowda renovated with astonishing stone sculptures of Trishula and Damaruga which are symbols of Lord Shiva.  This temple is world-renowned for a unique phenomenon which happens twice a year, once on the Winter solstice and on the day of Makara Sankranti (it means the day when sun transit to Capricorn from Sagittarius), at evening the sun rays will pass through the horns of the Nandi idol and falls on the Lord Shiva Linga.  Also in Chapter 5.5. the stream from the underground tunnel of this temple has been explained refer that.

Gavi Gangadhareshwara Temple Photo ⇓

Gavi Gangadhareshwara Temple  Photo, Bengaluru
Gavi Gangadhareshwara Temple  Photo, Bengaluru

Gavi Gangadhareshwara Temple Video ⇓

  • Sri Dodda Ganapathi Temple located in Basavanagudi, Next to Dodda Basavanagudi temple. Lord Sri Ganapathi is the son of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati,  He has to be worshipped first prior to any Vedic rituals. As the name suggests Doodda means big, Ganapathi is Lord Ganesha, and here the idol of Ganapathi is a Huge one 18 feet in height and 16 feet in width, one of the huge Ganesha idol in the World. 

Sri Dodda Ganapathi Temple photo ⇓

Sri Dodda Ganapathi Temple, Basavanagudi, Bengaluru
Sri Dodda Ganapathi Temple, Basavanagudi, Bengaluru
  • Halasuru (also called Ulsoor) Sri Someshwara Temple is called “Mandaavya Maharishi Kshetra” (Mandaavya is the name of a Sage of ancient times, Maharishi means a higher level Sage, Kshetra means locality) this gives a clear hint about the age of this temple which could be dated back to 1000 BCE. Here Lord Shiva worshiped as Sri Someshwara, and in the 10th Century, Cholas Kings had built a temple, later developed by Vijayanagara Emperors under the leadership of Kempegowda in the Vijayanagar style of architecture. 
  • Lakshmamma Memorial is not actually a temple but the tomb of the daughter-in-law Lakshmamma who sacrificed herself because one of the walls of Bengaluru Pete Fort was falling frequently,  Kempegowda herd that a Human pregnant lady sacrifice would solve the issue, for which he was against, but the great lady killed herself, thus Kempegowda constructed this monument.

5.8. Kempegowda Samraka (Tomb of Hiriya Kempegowda the founder of Bengaluru City) 

Kempegowda Smaraka the Tomb of Hiriya Kempegowda (that is Kempegowda I) was traced by the historian Mr. Prashanth Marur in the year 2015 CE.  Located at Kempapura Village, Angajanahalli of Magadi Taluk, about 60 km from where he had built the city of Bengaluru. the tomb built in a similar structure to watchtowers built by Kempegowda II, which is also used as a logo by the present BBBP the Governance body of Bengaluru City. 

Kempegowda Samraka (Tomb of Hiriya Kempegowda the founder of Bengaluru City) photo ⇓


Video of Kempegowda Samraka (Tomb of Hiriya Kempegowda the founder of Bengaluru City)⇓

#7. Bengaluru during the Marathas, 17th Century:

In the mid of 17th Century CE, Bengaluru was taken over by the Maratha King Shahaji, who was under the Bijapur Sultanate at that time.  Shahaji’s second son is none other than Chatrapathi Shivaji who had spent around 2 years in Bengaluru when he was at 10 years of age, between the year 1640 to 1642 CE during this time Shivaji’s wedding to Saibai Nimbalkar of Phaltan also did happen in Bengaluru.

 Venkoji builds the Kaadu Mallikarjuna Swamy Temple on a hilltop, which was in the middle of the Forest. ( Kaadu is Kannada’s term for Forest, Mallikarjuna is another name of Lord Shiva). Marathas ruled over the areas of Nelamangala, Hoskote, Begur, Hudi, Vasanthpura, Yelahanka, and other parts of Bengaluru, Marathi Language was widely used a stone inscription on the outer wall of Yoga Nandeeshwara Temple at Nandi Hills mention that Shivaji’s son, Sambaji captured the hill from the Mughals of Delhi Sultanate.

The Marathas rule in Bengaluru was only for a brief period of 50 years, Hence not that much Historical monuments or data or inscriptions available. some of the historical landmarks and temples const by Marathas in Bengaluru are as below. 

7.1. Kaadu Mallikarjuna Swamy temple built by Venkoji brother of Chatrapati Shivaji in the 17th Century. Kadu a Kannada term means Forest in English. this temple is dedicated to Lord Mallikarjuna (another name for Lord Shiva). this temple is built in the Kempegowda style of architecture, now located in Malleshwaram, Bengaluru city.

Kaadu Mallikarjuna Swamy temple HD photo ⇓

Kadu Mallikarjuna Swamy temple, Malleshwaram, Bengaluru
Entrance to Kaadu Mallikarjuna Swamy temple, Malleshwaram, Bengaluru

7.2. Bhavani Shankar Temple in Vasanthapura

This temple was built by Guru Samarth Ramdas, Guru of Chatrapati Shivaji, which is dedicated to Lord Shiva in the year 17th Century, next to Vasantha Vallabharaya Temple Swamy temple, located in Vasanthpura, Bengaluru. 

Bhavani Shankar Temple in Vasanthapura built by Guru Samarth Ramdas HD Photo⇓

Bhavani Shankar Temple in Vasanthapura built by Guru Samarth Ramdas
Bhavani Shankar Temple in Vasanthapura built by Guru Samarth Ramdas

7.3. Sri Rama temple at Sri Karanji Anjaneya Temple:

Maratha chieftain from the Scindia clan, had built a Sri Rama Temple at the premises of already existed Sri Karanji Anjaneya temple which was built by Kempe Gowda in the 16th Century. The Temple was built in such a way that Sri Rama Temple faces Sri Anjaneya Temple.

Sri Rama temple at Sri Karanji Anjaneya Temple, Basavanagudi photo⇓

Sri Karanji Anjaneya Swamy Temple, Basavanagudi, Bengaluru
Sri Karanji Anjaneya Swamy Temple, Basavanagudi, Bengaluru

In the year 1680 CE, Sangeen Jamia Masjid located in Taramandalpet, was built by the Mughal Qilder and was damaged during a war, but in the year 1863 CE, it was renovated by Mohiuddin Mehkri.

In the year 1710 CE, Kote Jalakantheshwara temple and Kote Anjaneya Swamy temple was renovated, which were initially built by the Cholas and later renovated by Kempe Gowda.

#8. Bengaluru during the Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, 17th and 18th Century:

During the early 17th Century The Mughals of Delhi Sultanate had captured the Bengaluru from the Marathas and then sold it to the Wadiyar of Mysore State, the authority then shifted from Wodeyar to Hyder Ali in the later part of the 18th Century.
Hyder was introduced to, then Chief Minister Devarja of King Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, in the year 1757 CE. 

Hyder Ali reclaimed the power of the army with his “Mysore Rocket”  a missile technology developed by him that resulted in gaining victory against the Naris of the Malabar (Kerala region), for this victory he was awarded the Jagir of Bangalore. Hyder Ali had engaged in several conflicts with the Marathas, which did also included the battle of Ooscota (present-day Hoskote taluk of Bangalore Rural District) in the year 1768 CE.

Lalbagh Botanical Garden
Lalbagh Botanical Garden

Hyder Ali laid the foundation of Lalbagh Botanical Garden, later Tipu Sultan, and The British Completed in the year 1780 CE. Hyder Ali also rebuilt the Kempegowdas mud Fort with stones, which was later renovated by Tipu Sultan. Sericulture was brought to Ramanagara, Sarjapura, and Kengeri by Tipu sultan, he had also built several roads, mosques around central and North Bengaluru.

 

tipu's armory, Bengaluru
tipu’s armory, Bengaluru

Sangeen Mosque located in Taramandal pet was the storehouse for Tipu Sultan’s Rockets, he also stored large numbers of weapons in the armory ( now called tipu’s armory) these places now to the present day also survives.
Once in a While, Tipu Sultan uses to display the rockets from his armory during the night, that’s the reason the area got its Taramandal pet. Tara means Stars, Mandal means Sky, Pete means town.  Taramandal Pete was the laboratory of Tippu Sultan for developing Missiles, four wars confronted with the British, out of which 3 were won by Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan, the reason was the “Mysore Rocket” developed by Hyder Ali, which Tippu Sultan improvised it further.  During Hyder Ali’s time, his army had 1200 nos of Rocket Corps, but Tippu Sultan increased it to 5600 nos of Rocket corps. These Rocket Corps were developed with a high-quality iron casing which was better than Europe made corps.

In the year 1791 CE, Dargah Hazrath Mir Bahadur Shah Al-Maroof Syed Pacha Shaheed was built for Bahadur Khan who was a soldier in Tippu sultan’s army gave a befitting fight during the Third Anglo-Mysore war when the British army led by Lord Cornwallis attacked Bangalore Fort during midnight killing soldiers during the course of Bangalore siege.

#9. Bangalore during the British and the Wodeyars of Mysore,  18th and 19th Centuries:

After the Tipu Sultan’s death in the year, 1799 CE at Srirangapatna, The Wodeyars, and the British split the territory of Bengaluru under an agreement by which the Pete area was under the control of the Maharaja of Mysore, while the British decided to build an alternative at cantonment area which was 5km away. During this time Bengaluru became anglicized, “Bangalore”.
The British fondness for the weather of Bangalore made them further develop Bangalore similar to England towns. The British also brought some of the tree species native to England and other countries, for example, the Monkeypod tree, the Gulmohar tree (called Delonix regia or royal Poinciana in English), the Copper pod tree, and other trees to create an English town ambiance.
The Construction of the British “Bangalore Cantonment” started in the year 1809 CE (Cantonment is derived from the French word “Canton” it means district), trade and commerce boomed in it. A secret letter from British Lord William Bentinck wanted to Make Bangalore the Capital of South India Since it is close to Madras and Hyderabad and also for the weather of Bangalore.
Hospitals, Schools, and other Buildings were built in the traditional English style, the streets in the old Cantonment area presently also bears the same names such as Brigade Road, Infantry Road, Davis Road, Cooke Town, Richards Town, and so on. Market areas built by the British in the Cantonment area are Johnson Market, Russel Market, Murphy Market, Russel Market, and the City Market which was once the battlefield. The British established Churches, Sports stadiums, Garden and Parks, Playgrounds, and other recreational activities, which were not found in the Pete area of Bengaluru. The Cantonment area started from Richmond Town in the South to Benson Town in the North, and from Racecourse road in the West to Halasuru in the East of Bangalore. 


Parks and Gardens during the British were as below:

Band Stand, Cubbon Park, Bengaluru
Band Stand, Cubbon Park, Bengaluru

The Cubbon park which was named after the then British Commissioner Mark Cubbon the park has an astonishing area of over 300 acres, a Band Stand was built in the early 19th Century, The British Royal Air Force used to play Western bank music every Saturday here. 

Coles Park, Bangalore, Fraser Town, Pulakeshinagar
Coles Park, Bangalore, Fraser Town, Pulakeshinagar

Coles Park is actually Cole’s Park named after British Arthur Henry Cole, who was a resident between the year 1780-1844 CE, is yet another park developed during the Bangalore Cantonment development by the British. 

 

In circa 1050 CE, Sri Someshwara Temple, Bilekahalli, Bengaluru,
In circa 1600 CE, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy temple also called Sri Hari Vaikunta Kshetra was built at Roopena Agrahara, Bommanahalli, Bangalore. This temple has retained the 400 years old Narasimha Meru which not found elsewhere.
In circa 1600 CE, Sri Patalamma temple and Ane Bande at the south end corner of Lalbagh tank was established.
In the year 1689 CE, Sri Mallikarjuna Swamy temple near Bugle rock Basavanagudi, by Sri Chikka devaraya Wodeyar of Mysore Dynasty.
In the year 1700 CE, the Kodandarama temple was built under the King of Sarakeya (present Sarakki, Banashankari area of Bangalore) at Hulimavu (formerly called Amrapura), several centuries old Cave temple dedicated to Lord Shiva is also nearby.
In the Year 1797 CE, John Binny arrived in India from the United Kingdom, started the textile industry engaging locals, the textile mills were established in Bangalore. The Bangalore Cotton, Silk, and Woolen Mills.  the same mills are present-day Binny mills closed in the year 1996 CE. This Binny Mills once had the largest Khaki dyeing (Khaki dyeing is the process of Iron buff and chrome green color mixing) plant in the entire World.
In the year 1802 CE, Lieutenant-Colonel William Lambton British soldier, surveyor, and geographer carried out a triangulation survey, which was later called the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India because the Survey started in the year 1800 CE was completed in the year 1910 CE, drew maps of India. This team was here to measure the distance between Marina beach in Chennai and Mehkri Circle in Bangalore. The Triangulation Station at Mehkri Circle still preserved at Ramana Maharishi Shrine, interestingly the Kempegowda watchtower is also on the same premises.
In the year 1812 CE, Saint Mark’s Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Mark the Evangelist, is the cathedral (Ecclesia Maar) of the Diocese of Central Karnataka of the Church of South India.
In the year 1820 CE, the British built tanneries at the eastern areas of Halasuru and Murphy Town, these were little away from the Cantonment area, Tannery Road in Bangalore still exists some building of British era.
In the year 1824 CE Abu Ali Askar a horse trader who came from “Shiraz” (a City in Iran) developed good relations with the British and Mysore Wodeyars settled in a bungalow in Richmond Town. He later worked on designing building architecture like Raj Bhavan and Balaboorie Guesthouse. He had contributed a sum of Rs 800 towards the mosque building which was finished in the year 1904 CE, though he died in the year 1891 CE, and this mosque Masjid-e-Askari is the oldest Shia mosque in Bangalore.
In the year 1834 CE, Rice Memorial was built in the Avenue road of Bengaluru Pete area, by Rev William Campbell, subsequently, in the year 1851 CE, a much larger Canarese Chapel was built and it was inaugurated by Rev. Benjamin Holt Rice, this structure was built in the Classical European style.
In the year 1844 CE the Maharaja of Mysore Sri Krishna Raja Wodeyar built the temple of Sri Prasanna Krishna Swamy, Sri Rukmini Thayar, and Sri Andal Thayar. In the year 1908 CE renowned Saint Tulasi Ramdas (the person who wrote Hanuman Chalisa) Consecrated the idol of Lord Sri Rama within this temple. And the Temple premises, at present popular as Tulasi Thota, also called Tulasi Vana, and also called Chikka Lalbagh.
In the year 1851 CE, Holy Trinity Church was built at Trinity circle east end of the MG Road Bangalore.
In the year 1864 CE, the Bangalore Railway network has established the locomotive took off from Bangalore Cantonment and Jolarpettai to then Madras(present-day Chennai) and in the year 1882 CE, under the supervision of Mr. James Davidson Gorden, the then Commissioner of the Mysore and Coorg, the Doddaballapura line was commissioned in the year 1892.
In the year 1865 CE “Lewin Bentham Bowring” established Government Archaeological Museum. This museum houses archaeological artifacts from Karnataka, hundreds of Inscriptions, old coins, and many antique pieces. this museum is presently one of the oldest museums in India and continues its core purposes.
In the year 1865 CE, East Parade Church consecrated, located opposite East Parade grounds, MG road, Bangalore.
In the year 1868 CE Attara Kacheri a two-storied building in the Graeco-Roman style of architecture under the supervision of Rao Bahadur Arcot Narayana swami Mudaliar, Attara Kacheri means 18 offices, used by the commissioner “Lewin Bentham Bowring”. At present this building is used as Karnataka High Court.
In the year 1874 CE Mr. Rev. J. Garrett the first principal of Central High School in Bangalore (present popular as Central College), started the construction of the Iconic Building and it was completed in the year 1878 CE and called by the name “Bangalore Palace” later this Palace was purchased by Younger Maharaja “Chamarajendra Wadiyar X” at Rs 40000, further it was renovated, the Tudor Revival architecture, a replica of Windsor Castle of England” with lavish Teak and Sandalwood work and mural paintings. At present The Bangalore Palace is located inside the palace grounds which is whooping 454 acres boundary inside the Bangalore city, this Palace grounds is now popular for holding functions, concerts, Exhibitions, shooting spots, and many more activities.
In the year 1882 CE, Extension of Bangalore, Whitefield was formed when the Wodeyar of Mysore gave the area to the Anglo-Indian community to establish settlements.
In the year 1882 CE, Lieutenant-General Sir Richard Hiram Sankey built a lake to drinking water for the growing population, near Kaadu Mallikarjuna temple, Malleshwaram, named after him as “Sankey Tank”.
In the year 1884 CE The British built the Bowring and Lady Curzon Hospital and it was the only Civil Medical Institution of Bangalore till the year 1890 CE, it had 104 beds.
In the year 1896 CE, Jamshedji Tata establishes India’s first sericulture farm called the TATA Silk Farm in Bangalore, which provided training, rearing of silkworms, and preservation of cocoons for Silk, Mulberry leaves cultivation. In the present day, that area is called Tata Silk Farm, but there are no more farms here, this is close to Yediyur lake built by Kempegowda.
In the year 1898 CE, Plague in the Pete area developed in Bangalore. Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, a zoonotic bacteria, transmitted between animals through fleas (fleas are a type of parasite insects). The first case of Plague was reported in the Cantonment area, preceded was a series of cases across the Pete and Cantonment, many houses were demolished and the remaining were disinfected. the Vitoria Hospital was established and the first Telephone lines were set up in the same year. To cope up with the situation two new extensions were formed, one is Malleshwaram towards the North of the Pete, which was named after Kaadu Malleshwara temple in Mallapura Village, Basavanagudi named after the Dodda Basavanagudi temple built by Kempegowda in Sunkenahalli Village.
In the year 1900 CE Sri Beereshwara Temple an 8th Century CE temple was reassembled at the village called Sampigehalli, multiple Herostones (Veeragallu) were found here, which is close to Sampigehalli tank. 
In the year 1902 CE, Bangalore’s first bakery came at Bangalore Cantonment area Frazer town.
In the year 1904 CE Hudson Memorial Church was constructed for the growing members of Canarese Wesleyan Chapel, which was functioning in the Pete area. this Church built on Gothic architecture (Gothic architecture is a European style of architecture that emphasizes the height of the structure).
In the year 1905 CE Bangalore became the first city in Asia to have electric street lamps, which were lighted in the Avenue Road, and Krishna Rajendra Market. the electricity was produced at Hydel power station at Shivanasamudra Falls, 150 km from Bangalore.
In the year 1905 CE, Bangalore’s first Book store was established by Abel Higginbotham, presently in the same building, Higginbothams is the oldest Bookstore in Bangalore, located opposite East parade ground on MG road Bangalore.
In the year 1906 CE the prince of Wales (United Kingdom), George Frederick Ernest Albert (later became King George V), Unveiled the Statue of Queen Victoria at Cubbon park where 3 roads conjoin, this junction was also the border between Bengaluru Pete of Mysore Wodeyars and the British Bangalore Cantonment. This statue was funded by the residents of Bangalore Civil and Military station, also heavily funded by the Maharaja of Mysore, Sri Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV.
In the year 1906 CE, Ramakrishna math was established at Basavanagudi, Bangalore,by Swamy Abhedanada which proposes the ideology of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa a mystic saint (18 February 1836 – 16 August 1886).
In the year 1907 CE, 5 acres of land opposite to Bangalore fort was awarded to “Janopakari Sri Doddanna Shetty” by Nalwadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Using this land Sri Doddanna Shetty built a Hall for organizing cultural activities, later at this land Bangalore’s First cinema hall was built, the first movie was screened here in the year 1934 CE was “Sati Sulochana”, later this cinema hall was converted into Paramount Talkies.
In the year 1909 CE, the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) was built as the land was donated by the Mysore Wodeyars with support from Jamshedji Tata.
In the year 1909 CE, the Theosophical Society was founded by Madame Blavatsky and HS Olcott, who had traveled all the way from New York (United States of America). They were granted 1.27 acres of land by the Maharaja of Mysore, Sri Nalwadi Krishnaraja Wadeyar, in that land City Lodge was built, the foundation was laid by Annie Besant, and this is the first lodge not only in Bangalore but in entire India.
In the year 1910 CE Gustav Hermann Krumbiegel, a German botanist, was appointed as the Superintendent of Lalbagh Botanical Garden, he planned and planted several exotic plants, he had also planned the tree-lined roads in Bangalore, he contributed heavily in making Bangalore as Garden City.
In the year 1915 CE a palatial 2-storeyed mansion was built by the Wodeyars and in the year 1939 CE sold to Manikyavelu a mining tycoon. presently this Mansion is converted into the National Gallery of Modern Art, which houses various collections of sculptures, paintings, graphic prints, and modern art.
In the year 1915 CE Sheshadri Iyer Memorial Hall started off as a private book lending company, acquired by the State Government of Karnataka in the year 1966 CE and turned into public library houses the largest collection of books in the state.
In the year 1915 CE, Sri Somanna Shetty a devotee brought the idol of Goddess Banashankari from Badami Banashankari Amma Temple (present-day Bagalkot District of Karnataka) and built a temple. Banashankari is a hilly area with many hillocks, and all of these hillocks temples are built, namely Hanumangiri, Banagiri, Devagiri, and Punyakshetra Sri Dharmagiri Manjunathaswamy Devalaya.
In the year 1916 CE Mysore Sandal Soap Factory in Yeshwanthpura, was established after a series of experiments carried out at the Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, and in England, several analyses and research were made to market the Sandalwood which was in abundance at that time. in 1918 the first Sandalwood soap called Mysore sandal soap was rolled out to the market, which even today has the market all over the world.
In the year 1917 CE, Mythic Society and Daly Memorial Hall (named after resident Hugh Daly) this society has a large collection of over 46000 books with separate sections of about 16000 books in Sanskrit, about 11000 books in Kannada, about 24000 books in English, 60 research journals, Archaeological Survey of India publications, Inscriptions, Epigraphy volumes, Encyclopedia volumes, rare maps of Bangalore, and few others.
In the year 1918 CE, Sri Adinath Jain Shwetambara temple was built using wood and limestone, however, it has been renovated in the year 2011.
In the year 1919 CE Svetoslav Roerich a Russian painter known for these paintings, Married the Bollywood actress Devika Rani, popularly is known as” the First lady of the Indian Screen” owned a 400-acre property known as Tataguni.
In the year 1920 CE, Bangalore Turf Club also called Bangalore Race Course was Established.
In the year 1920 CE, Udupi Sri Krishna Bhavan (Food Restaurant) came up in the Pete area of Bengaluru, popular for Masala Dosa.
In the year 1927 CE, New Market was built for the Anglo-Indian community in the Bangalore Cantonment area, later it was renamed Russell Market, presently it is still in use.
In the year 1927 CE, Sri Krishna Raja Silver Jubilee Park was developed to commemorate the 25 years rule of Sri Krishna Rajendra Wadiyar IV, close to the Bengaluru Pete area.
In the Year 1930 CE, South India’s First Flour Mill was established called the Elgin Mill, it had a capacity to produce 12000 tonnes fresh ground Wheat per month. The Mill was named after Lord Elgin who was the viceroy of India then.
In the year 1932 CE Government Porcelain Factory was established, which post-independence became the division of the Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.
In the year 1935 CE Sir Puttanna Chetty Town Hall, a municipal building was completed, Mysore Maharaja Sri Krishna Rajendra Wodeyar had laid the foundation stone, which is built in classical Roman architecture and named after the first president of the Bangalore Municipality “Diwan Bahadur Sir Krishnarajapur Palligonde Puttanna Chetty”.
In the year 1939 CE, Otto H. Königsberger (13 October 1908 CE – 3 January 1999 CE) a German architect specialized in Urban planning and Development was appointed by Diwan Mirza Ismail. Otto H. Königsberger was popularly called OK was the man behind the building of Bus terminus, Municipal Swimming Pool, few buildings of Indian Institute of Science, and Krishna Rao Pavillion. Present to at M.N. Krishna Rao Park his work can be seen.
In the year 1947 CE August 15th India freed from British rule, the area of the “Bangalore Cantonment” and “Bengaluru Pete” area, was merged into “Bangalore City”.
In the year 1948 CE the new extension of Bangalore was formed “Jayanagar”, named after Sri Jaya Chama Rajendra Wodeyar.
In the year 1948 CE, The Ashoka pillar was built to mark the southern end of Bangalore that time.
In the year 1949 CE another new extension of Bangalore was formed “Rajajinagar”, named after Chakravarti Rajagopalachari the last Governor-General of India and the first non-British to hold this position.
In the year 1951 CE, Kengal Hanumanthaiah the then Chief Mister of Karnataka State, built “Vidhana Soudha” a building a blend of Roman, European, Gothic, and Mysore Neo-Dravidian architecture, it serves as the Karanataka State legislature.
In the year 1953 CE HMT has entrusted the vital task of building machine tools, The first Machine tool factory was set up in Bangalore.
In the year 1956 CE The Bangalore City, Became the Capital City of Karnataka, State of India.
In the year 1956 CE, Sri Vishveshathitha Swamiji of Pejawara Mutt (Udupi District of Karnataka) built a Sanskrit school called Poornaprajna Vidyapeetha in Rajajinagar.
In the year 1960 CE, Sri M.S. Nanjunda Rao established Karnataka Chitrakala Parishath for advanced studies in art and culture which also houses large collections of traditional paintings, ancient crafts, and puppets.
In the year 1962 CE, Visvesvaraya Industrial & Technological Museum, Bangalore (VITM) was established in fond memory of Bharat Ratna (means Gem of India) Sir M Visvesvaraya, to enhance the uses of Science in modern technology.
In the year 1973 CE The Public Utility Building, Bangalore’s first skyscraper located on Mahatma Gandhi Road, a commercial hub.
In the year 1973 CE, the Indian Institute of Management Bangalore (IIM Bangalore) was founded as the third IIM in India.
In the year 1980 CE Sir M Visvesvaraya Towers also called VV towers, Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya KCIE FASc (15 September 1860 – 14 April 1962), was an Indian civil engineer and statesman and the 19th Diwan of Mysore, serving from 1912 to 1919, awarded with the Bharat Ratna, in 1955. Sir M.V’s Birth is celebrated as Engineers day in India. Land of Sir M Visvesvaraya Towers was the residence of Sir MV, after his death, the Government of Karnataka built these towers, it houses Government offices of various departments.

 

 

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