Indian Food, Vegetables, Fruits, and Places
Indian Food, Vegetables, Fruits, and Places

Vegetables

Vegetables

Vegetables are the selected species of plants from the Plant Kingdom cultivated by humans as the chief source of staple food for nourishment and as also medicine to get rid of any diseases of both humans as well as domesticated animals.
Further Vegetables are parts or Whole of a plant, Tree, Vine, Grass, and fungus which include leaves, Seeds, Roots, Flowers, Fruits, and stem. Based on the part used as Vegetables are further classified as Leafy-Vegetable, Stem-Vegetable, Podded-Vegetable, tubers & Roots-Vegetable, Legumes (Seeds), Fungus-Vegetable, Bulb-Vegetable, Flower-Vegetable, Fruit-Vegetable, Grass-Vegetable, and seaweed-Vegetable.
Only the plant or trees used by Humans and domesticated animals for consumption as food are called Vegetables.

Below is the photo of the typical vegetable store in India.

Vegetables store
a Vegetable store in India

7. An Human body is a biochemical engineering unit that consists of more than 125 different kinds of elements which include 13 main elements, 92 trace elements, 13 Vitamins, Amino acids, Omega-9, Omega-3, and Omega-6 fatty acids, Carotenoids, dietary fiber, and last but not the least Carbohydrates.

Below are the complete and most important nutrients like Vitamins, Proteins, Amino acids, fibers required by the Human body to be healthy they are 125 in numbers which are provided by vegetables.

No. Elements Chemical
nomenclature
Percentage
of Body
weight
in Kilogram if the
Bodyweight is 80 kg
Main Elements
1 Oxygen (O) 65% 52 kg.
2 Carbon ( C ) 18.60% 14.4 kg.
3 Hydrogen (H) 9.70% 8 kg.
4 Nitrogen  (N) 3.20% 2.4 kg.
5 Calcium (Ca) 1.80% 1.12 kg.
6 Phosphorus (P) 1% 880 gram.
7 Potassium (K) 0.40% 200 gram.
8 Sodium (Na) 0.15% 120 gram
9 Chlorine (Cl) 0.15% 120 gram.
10 Magnesium (Mg) 0.0006 40 gram.
11 Sulfur (S) 0.04% 200 gram.
12 Iron (Fe) 4.8 gram.
13 Iodine (I2) 20 milligram.
Trace Elements 
14 Silicon (Si) 1.0 gram.
15 Fluorine (F2) 3.0 gram.
16 Copper (Cu) 0.08 gram.
17 Manganese (Mn) 0.0136 gram.
18 Zinc (Zn) 2.6 gram.
19 Selenium (Se) 15 milligrams.
20 Cobalt (Co) 3 milligram.
21 Molybdenum (Mo) 5 milligram.
22 Cadmium (Cd) 50 milligrams.
23 Chromium (Cr) 14 milligrams.
24 Tin (Sn) 20 gram.
25 Aluminum (Al) 60 milligrams.
26 Boron (B) 18 milligrams.
27 Rubidium (Rb) 0.68 g
28 Strontium (Sr) 0.32 g
29 Bromine (Br2) 0.26 g
30 Lead (Pb) 0.12 g
31 Cerium (Ce) 40 mg
32 Barium (Ba) 22 mg
33 Titanium (Ti) 20 mg
34 Nickel (Ni) 15 mg
35 Arsenic (As) 7 mg
36 Lithium (Li) 7 mg
37 Cesium (Cs) 6 mg
38 Mercury (Hg) 6 mg
39 Germanium (Ge) 5 mg
41 Antimony (Sb) 2 mg
42 Silver (Ag) 2 mg
43 Niobium (Nb) 1.5 mg
44 Zirconium (Zr) 1 mg
45 Lanthanum (La) 0.8 mg
46 Gallium (Ga) 0.7 mg
47 Tellurium (Te) 0.7 mg
48 Yttrium (Y) 0.6 mg
49 Bismuth (BI) 0.5 mg
50 Thallium (Tl) 0.5 mg
51 Indium (In) 0.4 mg
52 Gold (Au) 0.2 mg
53 scandium (Sc) 0.2 mg
54 Tantalum (Ta) 0.2 mg
55 Vanadium (V) 0.11 mg
56 Thorium (Th) 0.1 mg
57 Uranium (U) 0.1 mg
58 Samarium (Sm) 50 µg (Microgram)
59 Beryllium (Be) 36 µg (Microgram)
60 Tungsten (W) 20 µg (Microgram)
 Water-soluble vitamins
61 Vitamin B-1 (Thiamin) C12H17N4OS+
62 Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) C17H20N4O6
63 Vitamin B-3 (Niacin)  C5H4NCOOH
64 Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic acid) C9H17NO5
65 Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) C8H11NO3
66 Vitamin B-7 (Biotin) C10H16N2O3S
67 Vitamin B-9 (Folate) C19H19N7O6
68 Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamin) C63H88CoN14O14P
69 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) HC6H7O6
Fat-soluble vitamins
70 Vitamin A (Retinol) C20H30O
71 Vitamin D (Ergocalciferol) C28H44O
72 Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) C29H50O2
73 Vitamin K (Phytonadione) C31H46O2
Amino acids 
74 Histidine. C6H9N3O2
75 Isoleucine. C6H13NO2
76 Leucine. C6H13NO2
77 Lysine. C6H14N2O2
78 Methionine. C5H11NO2S
79 Phenylalanine.  C9H11NO2
80 Threonine. C4H9NO3
81 Tryptophan. C11H12N2O2
82 Valine. C5H11NO2
83 Arginine.  C6H14N4O2
Fats
Monounsaturated fats (MUFA)
Omega-9 fatty acids
84 Oleic acid C18H34O2
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
Omega-3 fatty acids
85 Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) C18H30O2
86 Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) C20H30O2
87 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) C22H32O2
88 Hexadecatrienoic acid (HTA) C16H26O2
89 Stearidonic acid (SDA) C18H28O2
90 Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE) C20H34O2
91 Ecosatetraenoic acid (ETA) C20H32O2
92 Heneicosapentaenoic acid (HPA) C21H32O2
93 Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) C22H34O2
94 Tetracosapentaenoic acid
95 Tetracosahexaenoic acid
Omega-6 fatty acids
96 Linoleic acid (LA) C18H32O2
97 Arachidonic Acid (ARA) C20H32O2
98 Gamma linoleic (GLA) C18H30O2
99 Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
Carotenoids (Pigments found in Plants)
100 alpha-carotene C40H56
101 beta carotene C40H56
102 beta-cryptoxanthin C40H56O
103 lutein C40H56O2
104 zeaxanthin C40H56O2
105 lycopene C40H56
dietary fiber 
water-soluble dietary fibers
Arabinoxylan (hemicellulose)
Fructans
106  Inulin C6nH10n+2O5n+1
Polyuronide
107 Pectin C6H10O7
   Alginic acids (Alginates)
108  Sodium alginate (C6H8O6)n
109 Potassium alginate C12H16K2O13
110 Ammonium alginate C14H22O13
111 Calcium alginate (C12H14CaO12)n
112 Propylene glycol alginate (PGA)
113 agar  C14H24O9
114 carrageenan C23H23FN4O7Zn
115 Raffinose C18H32O16
116 Polydextrose C12H22O11
water-insoluble dietary fibers
beta-glucans (a few of which are water-soluble)
117    Cellulose (C6H10O5)n
118    Chitin (C8H13O5N)n
Hemicellulose
119    Hexoses C6H12O6
120    Pentose C5H10O5
Lignin
121 Xanthan gum C35H49O29 (monomer)
122 Resistant starch (RS)
 Carbohydrates
123 Sugar C12H22O11
124 Starch  (C6H10O5)n
125 Fiber.

Table of Content:

» History of Vegetables.
» Classification of Vegetables in Culinary.
» Vegetable families as per Taxonomy.
» Most popular Vegetable plant families in Taxonomy.
» Vegetable Botanical nomenclature.

» List of 1000 different Vegetables

 

Palm Vegetables.

  • Palm Vegetables, in the Arecaceae family of perennial flowering plants, tree-like forms are called palm trees, and the use of these trees can be defined as palm vegetables namely Coconut, Areca nut, Ice apple, and Date palm.

Podded Vegetables.

  • Podded Vegetables Can be defined as the fruit of a leguminous plant having a two-valved case that contains the seeds and splits after when ripe or when it is dried. examples of pod Vegetables are Flat Beans, Black-eyed beans, Yardlong Beans, Cluster beans, Double Beans, Broad Beans, Okra, Pigeon peas, Pea, and Green Beans.

Root & Tuber Vegetables.

  • Root and tuber Vegetables as the name suggests its the root of a plant or trees grown under soil used as a vegetable namely, Carrot, Sweet Potato, Radish, Cassava Plant, Taro Root, Ashwagandha, Maerua Oblongifolia, and Purple White yam, and Wild Potato.

Stem Vegetables.

  • Stem Vegetables the use of stem of any plant can be defined as stem Vegetables, namely Aloe vera plant, Plantain Stem, Spring Onion, Garlic Chives, Cinnamon Bark, Leeks, Caralluma, Asafoetida, and Edible Camphor.

 

Seed Vegetables

Seed Vegetables are popularly known as legumes and this group forms one of the largest staple foods since they can be stored for up to 5 years. They are Sweet Corn, Corn, Red Corn, Broom-corn, Flax Seeds, Barley, Finger Millet, Red Rice, Black Rice, Brown Rice, Rice, Groundnuts, Yellow Mustard, Brown Indian mustard, Black mustard, Thai Basil Seeds, Fennel seeds, Lotus seeds, Nutmeg, Cashew Nut, Niger Seeds, Radish seeds, Sunflower Seeds, Coffee Beans, Cocoa Beans, Horse Gram, Velvet Beans, Black-eyed peas, Coriander Seeds, Cumin Seeds, Fenugreek Seeds, Jackfruit Seeds, Muskmelon seeds, Pumpkin seeds, Sesame Seeds, Watermelon Seeds, and chia seeds.

 

Grass Vegetables.

  • Grass Vegetables, Grass can be defined as “Gramineae” is a very large and found everywhere family of “Monocotyledonous” flowering plants which includes cereal grasses, bamboos, and the grasses of natural grassland. Examples of Grass Vegetables are Corn, Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, Barely, Bamboo Shoots, Durva Grass, and Millets.

 

History of Vegetables:

» History of Consuming Vegetables by Humans goes back to at least 30,000 years back since by that time the use of Fire was known to humans, and scientific study reveals that during those times Vegetables were collected from the wild.
» But a recent Scientific study reveals that the Cultivation of Vegetables began with the great African migration around 25000 years ago where a large population began to migrate towards present-day Europe and India, which resulted in the early Civilization around rivers like Indus. This study further states that the Consumption of Vegetables as the main food for a prolonged period gave rise to 2 more blood groups in Humans is “A” and “B”, earlier all humans had only one type of Blood group which was “O” only when they were primarily meat-eaters and hunters.
» Perhaps Rice may be the oldest cultivated Vegetable in the history of the world because most of the civilization which happened on river banks which supports the growth of Rice paddy more.

Classification of Vegetables in Culinary.

Classification of Vegetables are based on the which part for plant or Tree used, there are mainly 11 types of Vegetables like Bulb, Flower, Fruit, Fungus, Grass, Leafy, Podded, Palm, Root & Tubers, Stem, Seed, and this Classification helps in understanding the Vegetables more, like Storage, Shelf life, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, Pricing, and More.

» Some Vegetables are felicitous in more than one category, for example, Beetroot plant, Beetroot can be classified as bulb vegetable and the leaves can be classified as Leafy Vegetable, below are the details of all the major Classification of Vegetables used worldwide.
» Bulb Vegetables as the name suggests these kinds of Vegetables are in the shape of bulbs and grow under soil or just above the soil, namely Knol-Khol, Potato, Onion, Beetroot, Garlic, Ginger, Elephant Yam, Turmeric, and Fennel.

Below is the photo of Fennel an example of Bulb Vegetable. ⇓

Fennel vegetable
Fennel vegetable

» Flower Vegetables as the name suggests these kinds of vegetables are the flowers of the plant or a Tree, namely Cabbage, Red Cabbage, Plantain Flower, Cauliflower, Rose Flower, Lotus flower, Saffron, Burr flower, Avaram senna, and Broccoli.

Below is the photo of a Plantain flower an example of a Flower Vegetable. ⇓

Plantain flower
Plantain flower

» Fruit Vegetables, in botany Fruit, is defined as any seed dispensing or seeds developed from flower or flowers but in culinary these Fruit Vegetables are cooked as Vegetables they are Tomato, Cherry Tomato, Brinjal, Pumpkin, Sugar Pumpkin, Ivy Gourd, Capsicum, Yellow Bell Pepper, Red Bell Pepper, Zucchini, Yellow Zucchini, Capsicum pubescens, Snake gourd, Breadfruit, Bottle gourd, Green Chili, Bitter gourd, Ridge Gourd, Lime, Lemon, Elephant Lemon, Citron, Tamarind, Bilimbi, Manila Tamarind, Ash Gourd, Pepper, Chayote, Star Gooseberry, Gooseberry, Indian Jujube, Cucumber, Field Marrow, English Cucumber, Kokum, Spiny gourd, Sponge gourd, Tender Jack fruit, True cardamom, Clammy Cherry, Drumstick, and Pointed Gourd.

Below is the photo of a red bell pepper an example of a Fruit Vegetable. ⇓

Red Bell Pepper a Fruit Vegetable
Red Bell Pepper a Fruit Vegetable

» Fungus Vegetables, a few types of Mushroom and Blackstone Flower follows in this category.

Below is the photo of a black stone flower an example of a Fungus Vegetable. ⇓

Black Stone Flower a fungus Vegetable
Black Stone Flower a fungus Vegetable

» Grass Vegetables, Grass can be defined as “Gramineae” is a very large and found everywhere family of “Monocotyledonous” flowering plants which includes cereal grasses, bamboos, and the grasses of natural grassland. Examples of Grass Vegetables are Corn, Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, Barely, Bamboo Shoots, Durva Grass, and Millets.

Below is the photo of Bamboo shoots an example of a grass Vegetable. ⇓

Bamboo shoots a Grass Vegetable
Bamboo shoots a Grass Vegetable

» Leafy Vegetables as the name suggests it is the leaf part of a plant or a tree used as Vegetables and they are namely, Coriander leaves, Lao Coriander, Curry leaves, Spinach, Mint leaves, Moringa leaves, Amaranth, Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus cristatus Noronha, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus sessilis, Alligator Weed, Amaranthus Viridis, Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Livid amaranth, Khaki Joyweed, Roselle leaves, Garden Nightshade, Garden Nightshade Red, Flaxseed leaves, Indian Borage, Betel Leaves, Mountain Spinach, White Goosefoot, Red-Stemmed Malabar Spinach, Malabar spinach, Bok Choy, Redroot plant, Benghal dayflower, Broadleaf Wood sorrel, Chamber bitter, Heart Leaved moonseed, Indian Bay leaves, Indian Pennywort, Red spiderling, Yellow wood sorrel, Fenugreek leaves, Taro Leaves, Mustard Greens, Balloon vine, Radish Leaves, Beet Greens, Stinking Passion flower, Tea Leaves, Waterleaf plant, Holy Basil, Lettuce, Red Lettuce, Butterhead Lettuce, Asparagus, Sweet Basil, Romaine Lettuce, Parsley, Napa Cabbage, Triple Curled Parsley, Rocket Leaves, Rosemary, Thyme, and Curly Kale leaves.

Below is the photo of Amaranthus sessilis an example of a Green leafy Vegetable. ⇓

Amaranthus sessilis a Leafy Vegetable
Amaranthus sessilis a Leafy Vegetable

» Podded Vegetables Can be defined as the fruit of a leguminous plant having a two-valved case containing the seeds and splits after when ripe or dried. examples of pod Vegetables are Flat Beans, Black-eyed beans, Yardlong Beans, Cluster beans, Double Beans, Broad Beans, Okra, Pigeon peas, Pea, and Green Beans.

Below is the photo of a Cowpea an example of a podded Vegetable. ⇓

Cowpea Seeds

» Palm Vegetables, in the Arecaceae family of perennial flowering plants, tree-like forms are called palm trees, and the use of these trees can be defined as palm vegetables namely Coconut, Areca nut, Ice apple, and Date palm.

Below is the photo of a Coconut an example of a palm vegetable. ⇓

Coconut a Palm Vegetable
Coconut a Palm Vegetable

» Root and tuber Vegetables as the name suggests its the root of plant or tree grown under soil used as the vegetable name suggests its the root of plant or tree grown under soil used as Vegetables, namely, Carrot, Sweet Potato, Radish, Cassava Plant, Taro Root, Ashwagandha, and Maerua oblongifolia.

Below is the photo of a Radish an example of a root vegetable. ⇓

Radish plant
Radish plant

» Stem Vegetables the use of stem of any plant can be defined as stem Vegetables, namely Aloe vera plant, Plantain Stem, Spring Onion, Garlic Chives, Cinnamon Bark, and Leeks.

Below is the photo of a Leeks an example of a stem vegetable. ⇓

Leeks a stem Vegetable
Leeks a stem Vegetable

» Seed Vegetables are popularly known as legumes and this group forms one of the largest staple foods since they can be stored for up to 5 years. They are Sweet Corn, Corn, Red Corn, Broom-corn, Flax Seeds, Barley, Finger Millet, Red Rice, Black Rice, Brown Rice, Rice, Groundnuts, Yellow Mustard, Brown Indian mustard, Black mustard, Thai Basil Seeds, Fennel seeds, Lotus seeds, Nutmeg, Cashew Nut, Niger Seeds, Radish seeds, Sunflower Seeds, Coffee Beans, Cocoa Beans, Horse Gram, Velvet Beans, Black-eyed peas, Coriander Seeds, Cumin Seeds, Fenugreek Seeds, Jackfruit Seeds, Muskmelon seeds, Pumpkin seeds, Sesame Seeds, Watermelon Seeds, and chia seeds.

Below is the photo of Chia seeds an example of seeds vegetable. ⇓

Chia seeds
Chia seeds

Vegetable families as per Taxonomy:

Taxonomy is the biology definition of the science of finding, describing, classifying, and naming organisms, including the studying of the relationships between taxa and the principles underlying such a classification.
» There are over 15,000 plant species which are used as vegetables worldwide, among them, nearly 1100 plant species are commercially grown, therefore it important to understand vegetables in groups.
» Vegetables which share some characters are grouped together and the only method of classifying crop plants is “Linnaeus” a universally accepted method.
» “Carl Linnaeus” (Born 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778 died), also known after his ennoblement as “Carl von Linne“, was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalized binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the “father of modern taxonomy”.

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus’s image source is Wikipedia.
» The taxonomy of vegetables is based on morphological and cytological similarities and dissimilarities, location of origin, crossability, behavior, and floral biology, further successive levels of morphological relationships are the results of evolution. in taxonomy, the Botanical classification involves grouping plants into:

  1. Kingdom.
  2. Division.
  3. Sub-division.
  4. Phylum.
  5. Sub-phylum.
  6. Class.
  7. Sub-class.
  8. Order.
  9. Family.
  10. Genera.
  11. Species.
  12. Subspecies (Botanical Variety).

» Vegetables are mostly discussed through their family, the genus and species constitute the scientific name, which is accepted worldwide and there cannot be any confusion as per their nomenclature. This vegetable classification in taxonomy is particularly useful to students of Olericulture, and cultivators.
» All Vegetable crops belong to the division “Angiospermae” (Angiospermae means, flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary), further Angiospermae has two classes, Class I is “Monocotyledoneae” and Class II is “Dicotyledoneae“, and most of the Vegetables belongs to class Dicotyledoneae.

Vegetable Plant Families in Taxonomy:

» Solanaceae: nightshade or tobacco family

» Fabaceae (leguminosae) pea or bean family

» cucurbitaceae: gourd family

» Malvaceae: hibiscus or mallow family

» Alliaceae: onion family (also liliaceous or Amaryllidaceae)

» Poaceae/Gramineae: grasses/grains

» Asteraceae/Compositae: sunflower or aster family

» Brassicaceae or Cruciferae: mustard family

» Chenopodiaceae: goosefoot family

» Amaranthaceae: amaranth or pigweed family

» Apiaceae or Umbelliferae: parsley family

» Lamiaceae or Labiatae: mint family

Vegetable Botanical nomenclature:

 Frequently Asked Questions.

Ques.1. What is the meaning of vegetables?
Ans.

Ques.2. What are the 11 main types of vegetables?
Ans.

Ques.3. What are Bulb Vegetables?
Ans. Bulb Vegetables as the name suggests these kinds of Vegetables are in the shape of bulbs and grow under soil or just above the soil, namely Knol-Khol, Potato, Onion, Beetroot, Garlic, Ginger, Elephant Yam, Turmeric, and Fennel.

Ques.4. What are Flower Vegetables?
Ans. Flower Vegetables as the name suggests these kinds of vegetables are the flowers of the plant or a Tree, namely Cabbage, Red Cabbage, Plantain Flower, Cauliflower, Rose Flower, Lotus flower, Saffron, Burr flower, Avaram senna, and Broccoli.

Ques.5. What are Fruit Vegetables?
Ans. Fruit Vegetables, in botany Fruit, is defined as any seed dispensing or seeds developed from flower or flowers but in culinary these Fruit Vegetables are cooked as Vegetables they are Tomato, Cherry Tomato, Brinjal, Pumpkin, Sugar Pumpkin, Ivy Gourd, Capsicum, Yellow Bell Pepper, Red Bell Pepper, Zucchini, Yellow Zucchini, Capsicum pubescens, Snake gourd, Breadfruit, Bottle gourd, Green Chili, Bitter gourd, Ridge Gourd, Lime, Lemon, Elephant Lemon, Citron, Tamarind, Bilimbi, Manila Tamarind, Ash Gourd, Pepper, Chayote, Star Gooseberry, Gooseberry, Indian Jujube, Cucumber, Field Marrow, English Cucumber, Kokum, Spiny gourd, Sponge gourd, Tender Jackfruit, True cardamom, Clammy Cherry, Drumstick, and Pointed Gourd.

Ques.6. What are Fungus Vegetables?
Ans. Fungus Vegetables, a few types of Mushroom and Blackstone Flower follows in this category.

Ques.7. What are Grass Vegetables?
Ans. Grass Vegetables, Grass can be defined as “Gramineae” is a very large and found everywhere family of “Monocotyledonous” flowering plants which includes cereal grasses, bamboos, and the grasses of natural grassland. Examples of Grass Vegetables are Corn, Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, Barely, Bamboo Shoots, Durva Grass, and Millets.

Ques.8. What are Leafy Vegetables?
Ans. Leafy Vegetables as the name suggests it is the leaf part of a plant or a tree used as Vegetables and they are namely, Coriander leaves, Lao Coriander, Curry leaves, Spinach, Mint leaves, Moringa leaves, Amaranth, Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus cristatus Noronha, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus sessilis, Alligator Weed, Amaranthus Viridis, Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Livid amaranth, Khaki Joyweed, Roselle leaves, Garden Nightshade, Garden Nightshade Red, Flaxseed leaves, Indian Borage, Betel Leaves, Mountain Spinach, White Goosefoot, Red-Stemmed Malabar Spinach, Malabar spinach, Bok Choy, Redroot plant, Benghal dayflower, Broadleaf Wood sorrel, Chamber bitter, Heart Leaved moonseed, Indian Bay leaves, Indian Pennywort, Red spiderling, Yellow wood sorrel, Fenugreek leaves, Taro Leaves, Mustard Greens, Balloon vine, Radish Leaves, Beet Greens, Stinking Passion flower, Tea Leaves, Waterleaf plant, Holy Basil, Lettuce, Red Lettuce, Butterhead Lettuce, Asparagus, Sweet Basil, Romaine Lettuce, Parsley, Napa Cabbage, Triple Curled Parsley, Rocket Leaves, Rosemary, Thyme, and Curly Kale leaves.

Ques.9. What are Podded Vegetables?
Ans. Podded Vegetables Can be defined as the fruit of a leguminous plant having a two-valved case containing the seeds and splits after when ripe or dried. examples of pod Vegetables are Flat Beans, Black-eyed beans, Yardlong Beans, Cluster beans, Double Beans, Broad Beans, Okra, Pigeon peas, Pea, and Green Beans.

Ques.10. What are Palm Vegetables?
Ans. Palm Vegetables, in the Arecaceae family of perennial flowering plants, tree-like forms are called palm trees, and the use of these trees can be defined as palm vegetables namely Coconut, Areca nut, Ice apple, and Date palm.

Ques.11. What are Root and tuber Vegetables?
Ans. Root and tuber Vegetables as the name suggests its the root of plant or tree grown under soil used as the vegetable name suggests its the root of plant or tree grown under soil used as Vegetables, namely, Carrot, Sweet Potato, Radish, Cassava Plant, Taro Root, Ashwagandha, and Maerua Oblongifolia.

Ques.12. What are Stem Vegetables?
Ans. Stem Vegetables the use of stem of any plant can be defined as stem Vegetables, namely Aloe vera plant, Plantain Stem, Spring Onion, Garlic Chives, Cinnamon Bark, and Leeks.

Ques.13. What are Seed Vegetables?
Ans. Seed Vegetables are popularly known as legumes and this group forms one of the largest staple foods since they can be stored for up to 5 years. They are Sweet Corn, Corn, Red Corn, Broom-corn, Flax Seeds, Barley, Finger Millet, Red Rice, Black Rice, Brown Rice, Rice, Groundnuts, Yellow Mustard, Brown Indian mustard, Black mustard, Thai Basil Seeds, Fennel seeds, Lotus seeds, Nutmeg, Cashew Nut, Niger Seeds, Radish seeds, Sunflower Seeds, Coffee Beans, Cocoa Beans, Horse Gram, Velvet Beans, Black-eyed peas, Coriander Seeds, Cumin Seeds, Fenugreek Seeds, Jackfruit Seeds, Muskmelon seeds, Pumpkin seeds, Sesame Seeds, Watermelon Seeds, and chia seeds.

Ques.14. What is the difference between vegetables and fruit?
Ans.

Ques.15. Which is the fastest growing vegetable in the World?
Ans. Bamboo is the fastest-growing vegetable.

Ques.16. Which country produces the highest quantity of Vegetables in the World?
Ans. India.

Ques.17. Which country has the largest irrigation land in the World for the cultivation of vegetables?
Ans. in India irrigated area is nearly 48.8 percent of the total 140 million hectares (MHA) of the total agricultural land. the remaining is rain-fed.

Ques.18. Why it is important to consume more Vegetables?
Ans. A single Vegetable or few Vegetables cannot fulfill the nutrient requirement of a Human body, because it is a biochemical engineering unit that consists of more than 125 different kinds of elements which include 13 main elements, 92 trace elements, 13 Vitamins, Amino acids, Omega-9, Omega-3, and Omega-6 fatty acids, Carotenoids, dietary fiber, and last but not the least Carbohydrates, thus it is important to include multiple vegetables to fulfill the needs of Human body.

Ques.19. What is the best method of eating vegetables?
Ans. The best method of eating vegetables is by cooking and through a popular recipe.

List of over 1100 different Vegetables with botanical nomenclature and common English names used on earth. 

No Vegetable common Names in English Synonmys Binomials/ Botanical nomenclature/
scientific names
Family Leafy Key Observations/ Used Region / Consumed as/
1 Abyssinian Cabbage  Ethiopian rape, Ethiopian mustard Brassica carinata Brassicaceae leafy Hybrid between Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea
2 African cabbage Chinsaga Cleome gynandra Brassicaceae leafy
3 African locust bean Parkia biglandulosa Fabaceae Seeds
4 African yam bean Sphenostylis stenocarpa Fabaceae Seeds Mainly used in Africa as seed vegetable
5 Ahipa Andean yam bean Pachyrhizus ahipa Seeds Andean region used as legume.
6 Alexanders Alisanders,
Horse parsley,
Black lovage
Smyrnium olusatrum  Apiaceae
(Umbelliferae)
leafy All parts of this plants are consumed in traditional dishes in Europre.
7 Aloe vera plant Aloe vera; (L.) Burm.f. Asphodelaceae stem Many edible uses in India.
8 Alpine bistort Knotweed, Buckwheat Polygonum viviparum Polygonaceae leafy Consumed in Northern regions of Europe.
9 Alsike Clover Trifolium hybridum Fabaceae leafy Tea is made from the flowers and leaves are eaten raw or cooked.
10  Bigelow’s amaranth Amaranthus bigelovii Amaranthaceae leafy Native to North America
11  Bone-bract amaranth Amaranthus scleropoides Amaranthaceae leafy
12  Fringed amaranth Fringed pigweed Amaranthus fimbriatus Amaranthaceae leafy
13  Purple amaranth  Red amaranth, Mexican grain amaranth Amaranthus cruentus Amaranthaceae leafy
14  Torrey’s amaranth Amaranthus torreyi Amaranthaceae leafy
15 African amaranth Amaranthus muricatus Amaranthaceae leafy
16 Alligator Weed Alternanthera philoxeroides  Amaranthaceae leafy Native to South America and wide range of uses In Culinary.
17 Alligator Weed Alternanthera philoxeroides Amaranthaceae leafy
18 Amaranth Amaranthus Amaranthaceae leafy
19 Amaranthus cristatus Noronha Silver cockscomb, Plumed cockscomb Amaranthus cristatus Noronha Amaranthaceae leafy
20 Amaranthus furcatus Amaranthus furcatus Amaranthaceae leafy endemic to Ecuador
21 Amaranthus saradhiana Amaranthus saradhiana Amaranthaceae leafy
22 Amaranthus scleranthoides Amaranthus scleranthoides Amaranthaceae leafy endemic to Ecuador.
23 Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae leafy
24 Amaranthus Viridis Amaranthus Viridis Amaranthaceae leafy
25 Australian amaranth Amaranthus interruptus Amaranthaceae leafy endemic to Austrailia
26 Bathua Chenopodium album Amaranthaceae leafy
27 Bloodleaf Iresine herbstii Amaranthaceae leafy
28 Brown’s amaranth Amaranthus brownii Amaranthaceae leafy
29 Calico Plant Alternanthera bettzickiana Amaranthaceae leafy
30 California amaranth California pigweed Amaranthus californicus Amaranthaceae leafy
31 Chihuahuan amaranth Amaranthus chihuahuensis Amaranthaceae leafy
32 Climbing Wool-Plant Ouret sanguinolenta Amaranthaceae leafy
33 Cockscomb Crested Celosia cristata Amaranthaceae leafy
34 Cockscomb Gomphrena Gomphrena celosioides Amaranthaceae leafy
35 Cockscomb Plumed Celosia cristata ‘Century’ Amaranthaceae leafy
36 Coyne’s Chaff Flower Achyranthes coynei Amaranthaceae leafy
37 Crispleaf amaranth Amaranthus crispus Amaranthaceae leafy
38 Desert Cotton Aerva javanica Amaranthaceae leafy
39 Edible Amaranth Chinese spinach, Tampala, Joseph’s coat, Amaranthus tricolor Amaranthaceae leafy
40 Elephant-Head Amaranth Amaranthus tricolor Amaranthaceae leafy
41 Elliott’s Psilotrichum Psilotrichum elliottii Amaranthaceae leafy
42 False Amaranth Digera muricata Amaranthaceae leafy
43 Florida amaranth Amaranthus floridanus Amaranthaceae leafy
44 Forest Burr Pupalia lappacea Amaranthaceae leafy
45 Garden Orache Atriplex hortensis Amaranthaceae leafy
46 Gomphrena Gomphrena globosa Amaranthaceae leafy
47 Green Amaranth Amaranthus viridis Amaranthaceae leafy
48 Greenstripe Amaranthus acanthochiton Amaranthaceae leafy
49 Gregg’s amaranth Amaranthus greggii Amaranthaceae leafy
50 Hairy Joyweed Alternanthera kanhae Amaranthaceae leafy
51 Himalayan Bosea Bosea amherstiana Amaranthaceae leafy
52 Hot Biscuits Amaranth Amaranthus cruentus ‘Hot Biscuits’ Amaranthaceae leafy
53 Indehiscent Pigweed Amaranthus standleyanus Amaranthaceae leafy
54 Jerusalem-Oak Goosefoot Dysphania botrys Amaranthaceae leafy
55 Joseph’s-coat Amaranthus tricolor Amaranthaceae leafy
56 Joy Weed Alternanthera brasiliana Amaranthaceae leafy
57 Khaki Weed Alternanthera pungens Amaranthaceae leafy
58 Ladakh Saxaul Haloxylon thomsonii Amaranthaceae leafy
59 Large-flowered amaranth Amaranthus grandiflorus Amaranthaceae leafy endemic to Austrailia
60 large-fruit amaranth Amaranthus deflexus Amaranthaceae leafy
61 Love Lies Bleeding Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthaceae leafy
62 Mat amaranth prostrate amaranth, prostrate pigweed Amaranthus blitoides Amaranthaceae leafy
63 Mediterranean amaranth short-tepalled pigweed Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthaceae leafy
64 Minute Amaranth Amaranthus minutus Amaranthaceae leafy Native to India and Srilanka, and other South Asian Countries.
65 Minute Amaranth Nothosaerva brachiata Amaranthaceae leafy
66 Mitchell’s amaranth Boggabri weed Amaranthus mitchellii Amaranthaceae leafy endemic to Austrailia
67 Monson’s Knotgrass Trichuriella monsoniae Amaranthaceae leafy
68 Mountain Knot Grass Aerva lanata Amaranthaceae leafy
69 Mucronate Amaranth yuyo colorado, sangorache Amaranthus quitensis Amaranthaceae leafy
70 Node Flower Allmania Allmania nodiflora Amaranthaceae leafy
71 Overlapping-Flowers Saltwort Caroxylon imbricatum Amaranthaceae leafy
72 Ox Knee Achyranthes bidentata Amaranthaceae leafy
73 Palmer’s amaranth Palmer pigweed, careless weed Amaranthus palmeri Amaranthaceae leafy
74 Pendant amaranth love-lies-bleeding,  Tassel flower,
Velvet flower, and Foxtail amaranth
Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthaceae leafy
75 Pendant amaranth love-lies-bleeding,  Tassel flower,
Velvet flower, and Foxtail amaranth
leafy
76 Powell amaranth Green amaranth, Powell pigweed Amaranthus powellii Amaranthaceae leafy
77 Prickly Amaranth Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae leafy
78 Prickly Chaff Flower Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae leafy
79 Prickly Russian Thistle Salsola kali subsp. tragus Amaranthaceae leafy
80 Prince-of-Wales Feather Amaranthus hypochondriacus Amaranthaceae leafy
81 Prince’s-feather Prince-of-Wales feather Amaranthus hypochondriacus Amaranthaceae leafy
82 Pringle’s amaranth Amaranthus pringlei Amaranthaceae leafy
83 Prostrate Gomphrena Gomphrena serrata Amaranthaceae leafy
84 Prostrate Pastureweed Cyathula prostrata Amaranthaceae leafy
85 purple amaranth Amaranthus blitum Amaranthaceae leafy
86 Purple Goosefoot Chenopodium giganteum Amaranthaceae leafy
87 Red Amaranth African-spinach, blood amaranth, bush greens,
caterpillar amaranth, grain amaranth, purple amaranth
Amaranthus cruentus Amaranthaceae leafy Also called Rajagiri in Sanskrit is one of the most popular and largely consumed Leafy Vegetable in India.
88 Red Amaranth Amaranthus cruentus Amaranthaceae leafy
89 Red root amaranth Redroot pigweed Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthaceae leafy
90 Red spinach Chinese spinach, spleen amaranth, Amaranthus dubius Amaranthaceae leafy
91 Redroot Pigweed Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthaceae leafy
92 Rimth Saltbush Haloxylon salicornicum Amaranthaceae leafy
93 Rough-fruit amaranth  Tall waterhemp Amaranthus tuberculatus Amaranthaceae leafy
94 Roundhead Pastureweed Cyathula capitata Amaranthaceae leafy
95 Sandhill amaranth Amaranthus arenicola Amaranthaceae leafy
96 Sanguinarea Alternanthera ficoidea Amaranthaceae leafy
97 Seaside amaranth Amaranthus pumilus Amaranthaceae leafy
98 Sessile joyweed Dwarf copperleaf Amaranthus sessilis Amaranthaceae leafy
99 Shrubby Deeringia Deeringia amaranthoides Amaranthaceae leafy
100 Silver Cockscomb Celosia argentea Amaranthaceae leafy
101 Slender amaranth Green amaranth Amaranthus viridis Amaranthaceae leafy
102 Smooth amaranth Sooth pigweed, red amaranth Amaranthus hybridus Amaranthaceae leafy
103 Smooth Chaff Flower Alternanthera paronychioides Amaranthaceae leafy
104 Southern amaranth Amaranthus australis Amaranthaceae leafy
105 South-Indian Seepweed Suaeda monoica Amaranthaceae leafy
106 Spleen amaranth Amaranthus dubius Amaranthaceae leafy
107 Spreading amaranth Amaranthus crassipes Amaranthaceae leafy
108 Spreading Pigweed Amaranthus blitoides Amaranthaceae leafy
109 Stalkless Joyweed Alternanthera sessilis Amaranthaceae leafy
110 Stocks Saltwort Seidlitzia stocksii Amaranthaceae leafy
111 Strawberry Fields Gomphrena Gomphrena haageana Amaranthaceae leafy
112 Thunberg’s amaranth Amaranthus thunbergii Amaranthaceae leafy
113 Tidal Marsh amaranth Amaranthus cannabinus Amaranthaceae leafy
114 Trans-Pecos amaranth Amaranthus obcordatus Amaranthaceae leafy
115 Tropical amaranth Amaranthus polygonoides Amaranthaceae leafy
116 Watson’s amaranth Amaranthus watsonii Amaranthaceae leafy
117 White Amaranth Amaranthus albus Amaranthaceae leafy
118 White pigweed Tumble pigweed Amaranthus albus Amaranthaceae leafy
119 Woolly Pastureweed Cyathula tomentosa Amaranthaceae leafy
120 Wright’s amaranth Amaranthus wrightii Amaranthaceae leafy
121 Amaranthus anderssonii Amaranthus anderssonii Amaranthaceae leafy  It is endemic to Ecuador
122 Amaranthus minimus Amaranthus minimus Amaranthaceae leafy
123 Slender amaranth Amaranthus viridis Amaranthaceae leafy
124 American Bistort Western Bistort Polygonum bistortoides Polygonaceae leafy Native to America
125 Garden orache Red orache,  Orache,
Mountain spinach, French spinach,
and Arrach
Atriplex hortensis Amaranthaceae Leafy
126 American groundnut Potato bean, hopniss, Indian potato, hodoimo, America-hodoimo, cinnamon vine, Apios americana Fabaceae Tubers Native to America
127 American Pokeweed Pokeweed, poke sallet, dragonberries, and inkberry, Phytolacca americana Phytolaccaceae leafy native to eastern North America and it is poiousus while in raw state, have to be cooked 3 times before conusming
128 American taro Arrowleaf elephant ear Xanthosoma sagittifolium Araceae leafy
129 American Wormseed Jesuit’s tea, Mexican-tea, Chenopodium ambrosioides Seeds used to make Tea out this seeds in South America
130 Aniseed Anix , Common Anise Pimpinella anisum Apiaceae or Umbelliferae Seeds Used as spice in India, Srilanka and other few countries.
131 Annual Nettle Dwarf nettle, Small nettle,
Dog nettle, and Burning nettle
Urtica urens Urticaceae leafy young shoots are cooked and consumed
132 Antipolo  Tipolo, Antipolo Artocarpus blancoi Moraceae Fruit endemic to the Philippines and its consumed locally
133 Arctic butterbur Arctic sweet coltsfoot ,
and Arctic butterbur
Petasites frigidus Asteraceae (Daisy) leafy
134 Areca nut Betal nut Areca catechu  Arecaceae Palm These palms are consumed in India along with betal leaves
135 Armenian cucumber Cucumis melo var. flexuosus Cucurbitaceae Fruit Native to India,
136 Arracacha Arracacia xanthorrhiza Apiaceae or Umbelliferae root Major commercial crop in South America.
137 Arrowleaf elephant ear Arrowleaf elephant ear, Arrowleaf elephant’s ear, Malanga or American taro Xanthosoma sagittifolium  Araceae Root
138 Arrowleaf sida Sida rhombifolia Malvaceae leafy leaves are cooked and consumed
139 Artichoke Globe artichoke Cynara cardunculus / scolymus Asteraceae flower immature flower heads are cooked and consumed
140 Arugula Rocket, Garden rocket,
and, Eruca
Eruca sativa Brassicaceae leafy Consumed as salad
141 Asafoetida Ferula assa-foetida Apiaceae root endemic to Southern Iran, but mainly consumed in India.
142 Ash Gourd Wax Gourd, White gourd,
Winter gourd, Tallow gourd,
Ash pumpkin, Winter melon,
Chinese preserving melon and Puhul
Benincasa hispida Benincasa Fruit this gourd is used in preparing both Sweet and saviour dishes.
143 Ashwagandha Indian ginseng,
poison gooseberry, and, Winter cherry
Withania somnifera Root regarded as one of the superfoods in India and now popular across the globe for its nutritions.
144 Asian pennywort Gotu kola,  Indian pennywort Centella asiatica (L.)  Apiaceae
145 Asparagus Asparagus officinalis
146 Asparagus bean (Yard long beans) Vigna unguiculata (sesquipedalis) podded
147 Atibulnak Rubus pectinellus Rose leafy both fruits and leaves are consumed after cooking, native to Japan,  southern China, Taiwan, and, Philippines.
148 Avaram senna Senna auriculata flower prepared Tea with flowers and consumed in India.
149 Awapuhi Bitter ginger,  Shampoo ginger,
and, Pinecone ginger
Zingiber zerumbet  Zingiberaceae root
150 Azuki bean Adzuki bean, Aduki bean,
Red bean, and Red mung bean
Vigna angularis Fabaceae Seeds The second most grown legume, Cultivated in India, China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, America, Thailand, and Canada.
151 Bai Yanang Yanang Tiliacora triandra Menispermaceae leafy In Thailand it is used to prepare Keng No Mai (Bamboo soup and yanang leaf extract)
152 Baikal Skullcap Chinese skullcap Scutellaria baicalensis Lamiaceae leafy mainly used in China
153 Bamboo shoots  common bamboo Bambusa vulgaris Poaceae Grass  Native to India and China used as Vegetable
154 Bank cress land cress, American cress,
Black wood cress, Belle Isle cress,
Bermuda cress, early yellowrocket,
early wintercress, scurvy cress,
creasy greens, and, upland cress.
Barbarea verna Brassicaceae leafy Used in Salads, also cooked as vegetable
155 Barbados Cherry Acerola cherry/Guarani cherry/ West Indian cherry/Wild crepe myrtle Malpighia emarginata Malpighiaceae Fruit  native to Paraguay and Brazil in South America, also grown in India, Used in Jams, Jelly, and pickled
156 Barbados Gooseberry Barbados gooseberry/ Blade-apple cactus,
leaf cactus/rose cactus/lemonvine
Pereskia aculeata Cactaceae Fruit native to Brazil, used as vegetable
157 Barley Hordeum vulgare Poaceae Seeds Staple food in many countires.
158 Common bean French bean Phaseolus vulgaris Faboideae podded Most popular bean used worldwide
159 Beet Greens Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris
160 Beetroot Beta vulgaris
161 Belgian endive ( chicory)  puntarelle Cichorium intybus var. foliosum Asteraceae Root blended with Coffee, and root are consumed in Europen countries.
162 Bell pepper Capsicum annuum ‘Bell’ Solanaceae (Nightshade) Fruit
163 Bella Sombra  ombu Phytolacca dioica Phytolaccaceae leafy only young leaves can be eaten and its poiousios as they grow, native to South America.
164 Benghal dayflower Tropical spiderwort, and wandering Jew Commelina benghalensis Commelinaceae leafy Cooked and consumed in India as vegetable.
165 Benniseed Black benniseed, Black sesame, and vegetable sesame. Sesamum radiatum Pedaliaceae seeds know for its oil, been cultivated since ancient times in Africa and India.
166 Betel Leaves Piper betle Piperaceae leafy cosumed in india as pan along with areca nut and gulkand.
167 Bhandhanya, Culantro Culantro, Recao, Shadow beni,
Mexican coriander,
long coriander,
Sawtooth coriander, and Ngo gai.
Eryngium foetidum Apiaceae Consumed in India.
168 Big Jim pepper Capsicum annuum ‘New Mexico Group’ Capsicum annuum Fruit a type of chilli
169 Bilimbi Belimbing Buloh, Cucumber Tree, and  Belimbing Averrhoa bilimbi Oxalidaceae Fruit Fruits are really very sour and it is usually pickled in west coast region of India.
170 Binung Anabun Macaranga tanarius (Linn.) leafy Bark and leaves use in making a fermented drink, basi in Philliphines
171 Birch-Leaved Pear Birchleaf pear Pyrus betulaefolia Rosaceae Fruit Used in China in preparing rice wine.
172 Bird’s Foot Violet Viola pedata leafy Young leaves and flower bud cooked and eaten in America.
173 Bitter gourd Bitter melon Momordica charantia Cucurbitaceae Fruit widely grown in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, also called vegetable insulin.
174 Bitter leaf Vernonia amygdalina Asteraceae leafy consumed as medicine in Africa.
175 Black mustard Brassica Nigra
176 Black Plum Vitex doniana
177 Black Rice Oryza sativa L. indica
178 Black Stone flower Parmotrema perlatum
179 Blackcurrant Ribes nigrum
180 Black-eyed pea Vigna unguiculata unguiculata
181 Black-Stem Sugarcane Saccharum officinarum
182 Bladder Campion Silene vulgaris
183 Blessed milk thistle Silybum marianum
184 Blue Palo Verde Parkinsonia florida
185 Blue pea Asian pigeonwings,  Bluebellvine, Blue pea, Butterfly pea, Cordofan pea, and Darwin pea Clitoria ternatea Fabaceae. flower in Southeast Asia, the flowers are used as natural food coloring substance
186 Blue Taro Black Malanga Xanthosoma violaceum Araceae leafy Must be cooked well before consuming the leaves or roots
187 Soft fern Christella dentata Thelypteridaceae Leafy
188 Borage greens Starflower, Bee Plant,
Beebread, Borago, and, Burrage
Borago officinalis Borag leafy
189 Bottle Gourd Calabash, White-flowered gourd, long melon,
birdhouse gourd, New Guinea bean and Tasmania bean,
Lagenaria siceraria Fruit
190 Bower spinach Tetragonia implexicoma
191 Breadfruit Artocarpus altilis
192 Breadnut / Seeded breadfruit Artocarpus camansi
193 Brinjal Solanum melongena
194 Brinjal Green Solanum melongena
195 Brinjal-Bottle Shape Solanum melongena
196 Broad Beans Vicia faba
197 Broadleaf arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia
198 Broadleaf Wood sorrel Oxalis latifolia
199 Broad-leaved endive Cichorium endivia var. latifolium,
200 Broad-leaved Plantain Plantago major
201 Broccoli Brassica oleracea var. italica
202 Broccoli Borago officinalis
203 Broccolini flowers Brassica oleracea
204 Bromeliad Puya caerulea
205 Brooklime Brassica oleracea Plantaginaceae leafy Mainly consumed as salad in Europe
206 Brooklime Veronica beccabunga
207 Broom-corn Sorghum bicolor
208 Brown Indian mustard Brassica Juncea
209 Brown Rice Oryza sativa
210 Brussels sprouts Veronica beccabunga
211 Brussels Sprouts Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
212 Buckshorn plantain Plantago coronopus
213 Bulrush Typha capensis
214 Bur-cucumber/Star Cucumber Sicyos angulatus
215 Burdock Arctium lappa
216 Burnet Saxifrage Pimpinella saxifraga
217 Burra Gookeroo Pedalium murex
218 Burrflower tree Anthocephalus kadamba
219 Bush Banana Leichhardtia australis
220 Butter Head Lettuce Lactuca sativa var. capitata
221 Cabbage Brassica oleracea (gemmifera)
222 Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata
223 Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata
224 Cabbage thistle Cirsium oleraceum
225 Caigua Cyclanthera pedata
226 Caigua / Achocha Cyclanthera pedata
227 Calabash / Bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria
228 Calabaza flower Cucurbita moschata
229 California wild grape Vitis californica
230 Calloose grape/bear grape Vitis shuttleworthii
231 Camas Camassia
232 Canada Violet Viola canadensis
233 Canadian burnet Sanguisorba canadensis
234 Canna Canna
235 Caper Capparis spinosa
236 Capsicum Capsicum annuum Group
237 Capsicum pubescens Capsicum pubescens
238 Caralluma Caralluma fimbriata
239 Caraway leaves Brassica oleracea (capitata)
240 Cardoon Cynara cardunculus
241 Caribbean royal palm/ imperial palm Roystonea oleracea
242 Carrot Daucus carota
243 Carrot Daucus carota subsp. sativus
244 Cashew Nut Anacardium occidentale
245 Cassava Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta
246 Cassava Plant Manihot esculenta
247 Cassod Tree Senna siamea
248 Cassumunar ginger Zingiber cassumunar
249 Cat Tail Typha elephantina
250 Catsear Carum carvi
251 Catsear Hypochaeris radicata
252 Cauliflower Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
253 Cayenne pepper Capsicum annuum ‘Cayenne’
254 Celeriac Apium graveolens (rapaceum)
255 Celery Apium graveolens
256 Celery Hypochaeris radicata
257 Celery Apium graveolens
258 Celtuce Apium graveolens
259 Celtuce Lactuca sativa
260 Ceylon oak Schleichera oleosa
261 Chamber bitter Phyllanthus urinaria
262 Cha-phlu Piper sarmentosum
263 Chard Beta cicla
264 Charlock Sinapis arvensis
265 Chaya Lactuca sativa (asparagina)
266 Chaya or Tree spinach Cnidoscolus aconitifolius
267 Chayote Sechium edule
268 Cheeseweed Malva parviflora
269 Cherry Tomato Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
270 Chickenspike Sphenoclea zeylanica
271 Chickpea Cicer arietinum
272 Chickweed Capsicum spp.
273 Chicory Stellaria
274 Chicory Cichorium intybus
275 Chik-nam, Kra don Barringtonia acutangula
276 Chili pepper leaves Cnidoscolus aconitifolius aconitifolius
277 China Jute Abutilon theophrasti
278 Chinese artichoke Stachys affinis
279 Chinese ginger Boesenbergia rotunda
280 Chinese mallow Cichorium intybus
281 Chinese mallow Malva verticillata var. crispa
282 Chinese Pistache Pistacia chinensis
283 Chinese potato Solenostemon rotundifolius
284 Chinese radish Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
285 Chinese Savoy Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa
286 Chinese Violet/Cowslip Telosma cordata
287 Chipilín Crotalaria longirostrata
288 Chives Allium schoenoprasum
289 Cicely Myrrhis odorata
290 Cilantro, Coriander Coriandrum sativum
291 Cinnamon Bark Cinnamomum cassia
292 Cinnamon fern Osmunda cinnamomea
293 Citron Citrus medica
294 Clammy Cherry Cordia obliqua Willd
295 Clearweed Peperomia pellucida
296 Climbing wattle Acacia pennata
297 Clove
298 clove currant Ribes odoratum
299 Cluster beans Cyamopsis tetragonoloba
300 Cocoa Beans Theobroma cacao
301 Coconut Cocos nucifera (L.
302 Coffee Beans Coffea
303 Collard greens Malva verticillata
304 Coltsfoot Tussilago farfara
305 Common amaranth Amaranthus retroflexus
306 Common bean Phaseolus vulgaris
307 Common blue violet Viola sororia
308 Common blue violet Viola papilionacea
309 Common Borage Borago officinalis
310 Common Chickweed Stellaria media
311 Common comfrey Symphytum officinale
312 Common evening primrose Oenothera biennis
313 Common Marshmallow Althaea officinalis
314 Common purslane Brassica oleracea
315 Common purslane Portulaca oleracea
316 Common Reed Phragmites australis
317 Common Thyme Thymus vulgaris
318 Common wood sorrel Oxalis acetosella
319 Common yellow woodsorrel Oxalis stricta
320 Cooking banana / Plantain / Green banana Musa × paradisiaca
321 Coriander leaves Coriandrum sativum
322 Coriander Seeds Coriandrum sativum
323 Corn Zea mays
324 Corn salad Portulaca oleracea
325 Corn Salad Valerianella locusta
326 Courgette flowers Cucurbita
327 cowpea Vigna unguiculata
328 Cowslip Primula veris
329 Creeping Rockfoil Saxifraga stolonifera
330 Creeping woodsorrel Oxalis corniculata
331 Cress Valerianella locusta
332 Crimson glory vine Vitis coignetiae
333 Cuban royal palm/Florida royal palm Roystonea elata
334 Cucamelon / Mouse melon Melothria scabra
335 Cucumber Cucumis sativus
336 Cucumis prophetarum Cucumis prophetarum
337 Cucumis prophetarum Lepidium sativum
338 Culver’s root Veronicastrum sibiricum
339 Cumin Seeds Cuminum cyminum
340 Curly endive Cichorium endivia var. crispum,
341 Curly Kale leaves Brassica oleracea
342 Curry leaves Murraya koenigii
343 Daikon Raphanus sativus (longipinnatus)
344 Ground Elder Aegopodium podagraria
345 Dandelion Taraxacum officinale
346 Date palm Phoenix dactylifera
347 Daylily Hemerocallis fulva
348 Deer calalu Phytolacca rivinoides
349 Digutiyara Senna occidentalis
350 Dandelion common dandelion Taraxacum officinale Apiaceae Leafy Flowers are used to make Dandelion, leaves are consumed as salads
351 Dimiliankwasia Talinum portulacifolium Talinaceae (Fenzl) Doweld Leafy Mainly used in Africa as leafy vegetable
352 Diplazium esculentum Athyrium esculentum Athyriaceae Leafy most commonly consumed fern in world
353 Dittander Perennial pepperweed,
Broadleaved pepperweed,
Pepperwort, and Dittany.
Lepidium latifolium Brassicaceae Leafy Young shoots are cooked after 2 days it is consumed.
354 Dog violet Viola adunca
355 Dolichos bean Lablab purpureus
356 Dotted Smartweed Polygonum punctatum
357 Double Beans Phaseolus lunatus
358 Dragon’s head Lallemantia iberica
359 Drumstick Moringa oleifera
360 Dune spinach/sea spinach Tetragonia decumbens
361 duo rui gao he cai Megacarpaea polyandra
362 Durian (unripe) Durio spp.
363 Dwarf mallow Malva neglecta
364 Dwarf Nasturtium Tropaeolum minus
365 Earthnut pea Lathyrus tuberosus
366 Eastern Swamp Saxifrage Saxifraga pensylvanica
367 Eastern Valerian/Scabious Patrinia Patrinia villosa
368 Edible Camphor Cinnamomum camphora
369 Elderberry Sambucus javanica
370 Elecampane Inula helenium
371 Elephant Apple Dillenia indica
372 Elephant Bush Portulacaria afra
373 Elephant foot yam Amorphophallus paeoniifolius
374 Elephant garlic Allium ampeloprasum (ampeloprasum)
375 Elephant Yam Amorphophallus paeoniifolius
376 Empress tree Paulownia tomentosa
377 Endive Anethum graveolens
378 Endive Cichorium endivia
379 English African tragacanth Sterculia tragacantha
380 English Cucumber Cucumis sativus
381 Ensete Ensete ventricosum
382 Ethiopian moringa Moringa stenopetala
383 European Verbena Verbena officinalis
384 European violet willow Salix daphnoides
385 Fat hen Cichorium endivia
386 Fava bean Vicia faba
387 Fennel Foeniculum vulgare
388 Fennel seeds Anethum graveolens
389 Fenugreek leaves Trigonella foenum-graecum
390 Fenugreek Seeds Trigonella foenum-graecum
391 Fiddlehead Chenopodium album
392 Field Marrow Cucurbita pepo
393 Field pepperweed Lepidium campestre
394 Field sow-thistle Sonchus arvensis
395 Finger Millet  Eleusine coracana
396 Fishwort Houttuynia cordata
397 Flat Beans Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet
398 Flax Seeds Linum usitatissimum
399 Flaxseed tree leaves  Linum usitatissimum
400 Florence fennel Foeniculum vulgare (dulce)
401 Fluted gourd ‘‘Telfairia occidentalis’‘
402 Fluted pumpkin Pteridium aquilinum
403 Fragrant Water Lily Nymphaea odorata
404 French Scorzonera Reichardia picroides
405 Friggitello Capsicum annuum ‘Friggitello’
406 Frosted mint Poliomintha incana
407 Gac Momordica cochinchinensis
408 Gallant Soldier Galinsoga parviflora
409 Galo Anacolosa frutescens
410 Garbanzo Cicer arietinum
411 Garden cress Lepidium sativum
412 Garden Nasturtium Tropaeolum majus
413 Garden Nightshade Solanum Nigrum
414 Garden Nightshade Red Solanum Nigrum
415 Garden orache Atriplex hortensis
416 Garden pea Pisum sativum
417 Garden rhubarb Rheum rhabarbarum
418 Garland Chrysanthemum Cucumis prophetarum
419 Garland chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum coronarium
420 Garlic Allium sativum
421 Garlic Chives Allium tuberosum
422 Genjer Limnocharis flava
423 Ghaf Prosopis spicegera
424 Giant Pigweed/Desert Horse Purslane Trianthema portulacastrum
425 Giant swamp taro Cyrtosperma merkusii
426 Giant taro Alocasia macrorrhizos
427 Ginger Zingiber officinale
428 Glasswort Salicornia europaea
429 Gnetum / Melinjo Telfairia occidentalis
430 Goat’s Beard Tragopogon pratensis
431 Golden lace Patrinia scabiosifolia
432 Melinjo Gnetum gnemon
433 Golden samphire Inula crithmoides
434 Good King Henry Inula crithmoides
435 Good King Henry Chenopodium bonus-henricus
436 Gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica
437 Gooseneck Loosestrife Lysimachia clethroides
438 Grape Vitis vinifera
439 Grape (leaves) Chenopodium bonus-henricus
440 Great Burnet Sanguisorba officinalis
441 Great water-parsnip Sium cicutaefolium
442 Greater Duck-weed Spirodela polyrhiza
443 Greater plantain Vitis
444 Green bean (French bean) Phaseolus vulgaris
445 Green Beans Phaseolus vulgaris
446 Green Chili Capsicum annuum.
447 Green gram Fabaceae
448 Green Snake gourd Trichosanthes cucumerina
449 Ground elder Chrysanthemum coronarium
450 Ground Ivy Glechoma hederacea
451 Groundnuts Arachis hypogaea
452 Guar Cyamopsis tetragonoloba
453 Guest tree Kleinhovia hospita
454 Habanero Capsicum chinense ‘Habanero’
455 Habek mint Mentha longifolia
456 Hamburg parsley Petroselinum crispum tuberosum
457 Harebell Campanula versicolor
458 Hawkbit Leontodon hispidus
459 Hawkbits Leontodon tuberosus
460 Heart Leaved moonseed Tinospora cordifolia
461 Heart of palm Cocos nucifera, Euterpe spp., Sabal spp., Bactris gasipaes, Deckenia nobilis, other palms
462 Hedge mustard Sisymbrium officinale
463 Henbit deadnettle Lamium amplexicaule
464 Himalayan mayapple Podophyllum hexandrum
465 Himbabao Broussonetia luzonica
466 Hog Plum
467 Holy Basil Ocimum tenuiflorum
468 Hooker’s Evening-primrose Oenothera hookeri
469 Horse gram Macrotyloma uniflorum
470 Horse Gram Macrotyloma uniflorum
471 Horseradish Armoracia rusticana
472 Huauzontle Chenopodium nuttalliae
473 Hungarian wax pepper Capsicum annuum ‘Hungarian’
474 Hyacinth bean Lablab purpureus
475 Ice apple Asian palmyra palm
476 Ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum
477 Indian Bay leaves Cinnamomum Tamala
478 Indian Borage Coleus amboinicus
479 Indian camphorweed/Indian fleabane Pluchea indica
480 Indian Jujube Ziziphus mauritiana
481 Indian Lettuce Lactuca indica
482 Indian Marshweed Limnophila indica
483 Indian mustard Brassica juncea
484 Indian pea Lathyrus sativus
485 Indian Pennywort Centella Asiatica
486 Indian Pokeberry Phytolacca acinosa
487 Indian pokeweed Phytolacca acinosa var. esculenta
488 Indian spinach / Malabar Spinach Basella alba
489 Interrupted fern Osmunda claytoniana
490 Iron Cross Oxalis deppei
491 Italian Corn Salad Valerianella eriocarpa
492 Ivy gourd Coccinia grandis
493 Jackfruit Seeds Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam
494 Jackfruit Tree leaves Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam
495 Jackfruit (unripe) Artocarpus heterophyllus
496 Jade vine / Tayabak Srtongylodon macrobotrys
497 Jalapeño Capsicum annuum ‘Jalapeño’
498 Jalapeno Pepper
499 Jambosa polycephala Syzygium polycephalum (Miq.) Merr. & L.M.Perry
500 Japanese mint Mentha arvensis piperascens
501 Japanese pepper Zanthoxylum piperitum
502 Japanese red elder Sambucus sieboldiana
503 Japanese Red Pine Pinus densiflora
504 Japanese wisteria Wisteria floribunda
505 Jenny’s stonecrop Sedum reflexum
506 Jerusalem artichoke Helianthus tuberosus
507 Jewels of Opar Talinum paniculatum
508 Jew’s mallow Corchorus olitorius
509 Jícama Pachyrhizus erosus
510 Jim Hill mustard/tall rocket Sisymbrium crassifolium
511 John’s Cabbage Hydrophyllum canadense
512 Jute mallow / Melokhia Plantago major
513 Kai-lan Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra
514 Kai-lan Corchorus olitorius
515 Kale Brassica rapa (alboglabra)
516 Kale Brassica oleracea var. acephala
517 Kalette Brassica oleracea (acephala)
518 Kapas-kapas Telosma procumbens
519 Kapok Buds
520 Katuk Sauropus androgynus
521 Kencur Kaempferia galanga
522 Kerguelen cabbage Brassica oleracea
523 Kerguelen cabbage Pringlea antiscorbutica
524 Khaki Joyweed Alternanthera sessilis
525 Kiwano / Horned melon Cucumis metuliferus
526 Knol-Khol Brassica oleracea
527 Knotweed Polygonum aviculare
528 Kogomi Matteuccia struthiopteris
529 Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea (gongylodes)
530 Kokum Garcinia indica
531 Komatsuna Pringlea antiscorbutica
532 Komatsuna Brassica rapa var. perviridis
533 Kuka Brassica rapa (pervidis / komatsuna)
534 Kuḷḷafila Launaea sarmentosa
535 Kurrat Allium ampeloprasum (kurrat)
536 Lablab Lablab purpureus
537 Lacinato kale Brassica oleracea var. palmifolia
538 Lady’s Thumb Persicaria vulgaris
539 Lagos bologi Adansonia
540 Lamb’s lettuce Talinum fruticosum
541 Lamb’s quarters Valerianella locusta
542 Lamb’s Quarters Chenopodium album
543 Land Seaweed Salsola komarovii
544 Landang Corypha spp.
545 Lao Coriander Dill Anethum graveolens  Apiaceae Leafy Cooked and consumed in India and other parts of the world.
546 Leaf celery Barbarea verna
547 Leek Allium porrum
548 Leeks Allium ampeloprasum
549 Lemon Citrus limon
550 Lemon basil Ocimum × citriodorum
551 Lemon Cucumber
552 Lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus
553 Lengkuas (Greater galangal) Alpinia galanga
554 Lentil Lens culinaris
555 Lesser celandine Ranunculus ficaria
556 Lesser galangal Alpinia officinarum
557 Lesser jack Emex spinosa
558 Lettuce Apium graveolens var. secalinum
559 Lettuce Lactuca sativa
560 Lettuce Lactuca sativa
561 Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus
562 Lima Bean Phaseolus lunatus
563 Lime Citrus aurantiifolia
564 Livelong Sedum telephium
565 Livid amaranth amaranthus blitum
566 Lizard’s tail Lactuca sativa
567 London rocket Sisymbrium irio
568 Long-leaved plantain Plantago lanceolata
569 Loroco Fernaldia pandurata
570 Lotus flower Nelumbo nucifera
571 Lotus root Nelumbo nucifera
572 Lotus seeds Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner
573 Lotus sweetjuice Glinus lotoides
574 Lovage Levisticum officinale
575 Love-restorer Sedum anacampseros
576 Lovi-lovi Flacourtia inermis fruit Pickled, Jelly, Srilanka
577 Luffa Luffa cylindrica
578 Lungwort Pulmonaria officinalis
579 Maca Lepidium meyenii
580 Maerua Oblongifolia Maerua Oblongifolia
581 Malabar Chestnut Pachira insignis
582 Malabar spinach Houttuynia cordata
583 Malabar spinach Basella alba
584 Malay apple Syzygium malaccense
585 Mallow Basella alba
586 Mallow Malva sylvestris
587 Manchurian wild rice Zizania latifolia
588 Mangosteen
589 Manila Tamarind Pithecellobium dulce
590 Marianas breadfruit Artocarpus mariannensis
591 Marsh yellow cress Rorippa islandica
592 Mashua Tropaeolum tuberosum
593 Mashua Tropaeolum tuberosum
594 Masterwort Peucedanum ostruthium
595 Mauka Mirabilis expansa
596 Meadow beauty Rhexia virginica
597 Mediterranean fleabane Pulicaria odora
598 Mediterranean hartwort Tordylium apulum
599 Melindjo Gnetum gnemon
600 Mexican pepperleaf Piper auritum
601 Miner’s lettuce Claytonia perfoliata
602 Miner’s lettuce (Winter purslane) Moringa oleifera
603 Mint leaves Mentha piperita L.
604 Missouri goldenrod Solidago missouriensis
605 Mitsuba Cryptotaenia japonica
606 Mizuna Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica
607 Mizuna greens winter purslane,  miner’s lettuce, Indian lettuce, spring beauty Claytonia perfoliata  Montiaceae.
608 Money tree Pachira aquatica
609 Moringa leaves Moringa oleifera Malvaceae leafy
610 Moss campion Silene acaulis
611 Moth bean Vigna acontifolia
612 Mountain lettuce Lactuca perennis
613 Mountain sorrel Oxyria digyna
614 Mountain Spinach Atriplex hortensis
615 Mung bean Vigna radiata
616 Musk Mallow Malva moschata Malvaceae seeds
617 Musk Melon seeds Cucumis melo seeds
618 Mustard Brassica rapa (nipposinica) seeds
619 Mustard Greens Brassica juncea leafy
620 Indian Gooseberry Myrobalan Phyllanthus emblica fruit
621 White mustard Yellow mustard Sinapis alba seeds
622 Napa Cabbage Chinese cabbage Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis leafy
623 Natal orange Green Monkey orange Strychnos spinosa fruit
624 New Mexico chile Capsicum annuum ‘New Mexico Group’
625 New Zealand Spinach Brassica rapa (chinensis)
626 New Zealand Spinach Tetragonia tetragonioides
627 Niger Seeds Guizotia abyssinica
628 Nigerian walnut/conophor Tetracarpidium conophorum
629 Nikau Rhopalostylis sapida
630 Nipplewort Lapsana communis
631 Noni tree Morinda citrifolia
632 Nopal Opuntia ficus-indica
633 Northern bluebell/camel bush Trichodesma zeylanicum
634 Northern Fox Grape Vitis labrusca
635 Nutmeg Myristica fragrans
636 Oak-Leaved Goosefoot Chenopodium glaucum
637 Oca Oxalis tuberosa
638 Okinawan Spinach Gynura crepioides
639 Okra Abelmoschus esculentus
640 Olive fruit Olea europaea
641 Onion Allium cepa
642 Onion Allium cepa
643 Opposite leaved saltwort Salsola soda
644 Orache Tetragonia tetragonioides
645 Orange climber Toddalia asiatica
646 Pagoda-tree Sophora japonica
647 Painted trillium Trillium undulatum
648 Palm-grass Setaria palmifolia
649 Palmyra sprout Borassus flabellifer
650 Pansy Viola x wittrockiana
651 Papaya (unripe) Carica papaya
652 Papaya leaves Brassica rapa (chinensis)
653 Paracress Carica papaya
654 Paracress Acmella oleracea
655 Parrot feather Myriophyllum brasiliense
656 Parsley Petroselinum crispum
657 Parsley Petroselinum crispum
658 Parsnip Pastinaca sativa subsp. sativa
659 Pea Pisum sativum
660 Pea (sprouts / leaves) Acmella oleracea
661 Peace Lily Spathiphyllum phryniifolium
662 Peanut Arachis hypogaea
663 Pearl onion Allium ampeloprasum (sectivum)
664 Pennycress Thlaspi arvense
665 Peperoncino Capsicum annuum and capsicum frutescens ‘Peperoncino’
666 Pepper Piper nigrum
667 Pepper saxifrage Silaum silaus
668 Perennial Hyoseris Hyoseris radiata
669 Perennial Wall-rocket Diplotaxis tenuifolia
670 Perilla Perilla frutescens
671 Petai Parkia speciosa
672 Phak chet Neptunia oleracea Loureiro
673 Phak kratin Leucaena leucocephala
674 Phak tiu som or Phak tiu daeng Cratoxylum formosum
675 Pheka Oroxylum indicum
676 pickerelweed/pickerel weed Pontederia cordata
677 Pigeon pea Cajanus cajan
678 Pignut Conopodium majus
679 Pimiento Capsicum annuum ‘Pimiento’
680 Pineapple
681 Pitogo Pisum sativum
682 Plantain Flower Musaceae
683 Plantain leaf Musa
684 Plantain Stem Musa
685 Pointed gourd Trichosanthes dioica
686 Poke Cycas riuminiana
687 Polynesian arrowroot East Indian arrowroot Tacca leontopetaloides
688 Potato Solanum tuberosum
689 Potato Solanum tuberosum
690 Potato onion Allium cepa (aggregatum)
691 Prairie turnip Psoralea esculenta
692 Prickly amaranth Amaranthus spinosus leafy
693 Prickly Lettuce Lactuca serriola leafy
694 Primrose Primula vulgaris
695 Prussian asparagus Ornithogalum pyrenaicum stem
696 Pumpkin Cucurbita fruit
697 Pumpkin flower Cucurbita flower
698 Pumpkin seeds Cucurbita seeds
699 Puntarelle Cichorium intybus var. foliosum
700 Purple amaranth Amaranthus cruentus
701 Purple bauhinia / Butterfly tree Bauhinia purpurea
702 Purple bauhinia / Butterfly tree Phytolacca americana
703 Purple While Yam Dioscorea Alata root
704 Queensland grass-cloth plant Pipturus argenteus
705 Quinoa Chenopodium quinoa subsp. quinoa
706 Radicchio Bauhinia purpurea
707 Radicchio Cichorium intybus
708 Radish Raphanus sativus
709 Radish Leaves Raphanus sativus
710 Radish seeds Raphanus sativus
711 Raffia palm Raphia hookeri
712 Rampion Campanula rapunculus
713 Rape Kale Brassica napus var. pabularia
714 Rapeseed Brassica napus
715 Rapini Brassica rapa subsp. rapa
716 Rapini (broccoli rabe) Cichorium intybus
717 Rattan pepper Zanthoxylum planispinum
718 Raw Mango
719 Red Bell Pepper Capsicum annuum Group
720 Red Cabbage Brassica oleracea Capitata Group
721 Red Clover Trifolium pratense
722 Red Corn
723 Red deadnettle Lamium purpureum
724 Red Goosefoot Chenopodium rubrum
725 Red Lettuce Lactuca sativa
726 Red oil palm
727 Red Rice Oryza longistaminata
728 Red root plant Portulaca oleracea
729 Red spiderling Boerhavia diffusa
730 Red spinach Brassica rapa rapa
731 Redflower ragleaf Crassocephalum crepidioides
732 Red-Stemmed Malabar Spinach Basella rubra
733 Redwood sorrel Oxalis oregana
734 Rhododendron Rhododendron arboreum
735 Rice Oryza sativa
736 Rice paddy herb, Ngò om Limnophila aromatica
737 Ricebean Vigna umbellata
738 Ridge Gourd Luffa acutangula L.
739 Ridged gourd Luffa acutangula
740 Rocket Leaves Eruca vesicaria ssp. sativa
741 Roma Tomato
742 Romaine Lettuce Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia
743 Rose crown Sedum rhodanthum
744 Rose Flower Rosa
745 Rose Mallow Urena lobata
746 Rose-Flowered Purslane, Penawar, Portulaca pilosa
747 Rosegold pussy willow Salix gracilistyla
748 Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa
749 Roselle leaves Hibiscus sabdariffa
750 Rosemary Salvia rosmarinus
751 Roseroot Rhodiola rosea
752 Rough fogfruit Phyla scaberrima
753 Round-headed rampion Phyteuma orbiculare
754 Royal fern Crithmum maritimum
755 Runner bean Phaseolus coccineus
756 Runner Bean Phaseolus coccineus
757 Russian comfrey Symphytum × uplandicum Nyman
758 Rutabaga Brassica napus
759 Rutabaga (swede) Brassica napus (napobrassica)
760 Saffron Crocus sativus
761 Sago Metroxylon sagu, Cycas revoluta
762 Salad Burnet Sanguisorba minor
763 Salsify Tragopogon porrifolius
764 Salsify Tragopogon porrifolius
765 Salt spring checkerbloom Sidalcea neomexicana
766 Saltwort Salsola kali
767 Samphire Amaranthus dubius
768 Samphire Crithmum maritimum
769 Sandia pepper Capsicum annuum ‘New Mexico Group’
770 Sassafras Sassafras albidum
771 Scarlina Galactites tomentosa
772 Scorzonera Scorzonera hispanica
773 Scorzonera Scorzonera hispanica
774 Sculpit / Stridolo Osmunda regalis
775 Scutch grass Cynodon dactylon
776 Sea beans / samphire greens Salicornia spp.
777 Sea beet Silene inflata
778 Sea Beet Beta vulgaris maritima
779 Sea Blite Suaeda maritima
780 Sea bluebell Mertensia maritima
781 Sea daisy Melanthera biflora
782 Sea kale Beta vulgaris maritima
783 Sea kale Crambe maritima
784 Sea Purselane Sesuvium portulacastrum
785 Sea purslane Halimione portulacoides
786 Sea Radish Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. maritimus
787 Sea sandwort Honckenya peploides
788 seaside plantain/goose tongue Plantago maritima
789 Seep monkey flower Mimulus guttatus
790 Semanggi Marsilea crenata
791 Sensitive fern Onoclea sensibilis
792 Sesame Sesamum indicum
793 Sésame de gazelle Sesamum alatum
794 Sesame Seeds Sesamum indicum L.
795 Sesban Sesbania sesban
796 Seven Sisters Rose Rosa multiflora
797 Shallot Allium cepa (aggregatum)
798 Shawnee Salad Hydrophyllum virginianum
799 Shepherd’s purse Crambe maritima
800 Shortpod mustard Hirschfeldia incana
801 Siberian elm Ulmus pumila
802 Siberian spring beauty Claytonia sibirica
803 Sierra Leone bologi Capsella bursa-pastoris
804 Siling haba Capsicum annuum ‘Siling haba’
805 silver lace fern/sword brake fern, Pteris ensiformis
806 Skirret Sium sisarum
807 skunkvine/stinkvine Paederia foetida
808 Snake gourd Trichosanthes cucumerina
809 Snap pea (sugarsnap, mangetout) Pisum sativum (macrocarpon)
810 Snow pea (mangetout) Pisum sativum (saccharatum)
811 Soko Crassocephalum
812 solitaire palm Ptychosperma elegans
813 Sorrel Celosia argentea
814 Sorrel Rumex acetosa
815 Sour cabbage Rumex acetosa
816 Southern Huauzontle Chenopodium berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae
817 South-west African moringa Moringa ovalifolia
818 Sow Thistle Sonchus oleraceus
819 Soybean Glycine max
820 Spinach Brassica oleracea
821 Spinach Spinacia oleracea
822 Spine gourd / Kantola Momordica dioica
823 Spiny amaranth Spinacia oleracea
824 Spiny gourd Momordica dioica
825 Spiny-leaved sow thistle Sonchus asper
826 Sponge gourd Luffa aegyptiaca
827 Spotless watermeal/rootless duckweed Wolffia arrhiza
828 Spotted Cat’s-ear Hypochaeris maculata
829 Spotted golden thistle Scolymus maculatus
830 spreading gooseberry Ribes divaricatum
831 Spreading stonecrop Sedum divergens
832 Spring Onion Allium fistulosum bulb
833 Spring onion / Scallion Allium wakegi stem
834 Squash Cucurbita
835 Squash blossoms Cucurbita
836 Star Anise
837 Star Gooseberry Phyllanthus acidus
838 Stinging Nettle Urtica dioica
839 Stinking Passionflower Passiflora foetida
840 Sugar Pumpkin Cucurbita pepo
841 Sugarcane Saccharum
842 Sugarloaf Cichorium intybus
843 Summer purslane Amaranthus spinosus
844 Sunflower Seeds Helianthus annuus
845 Sunset muskmallow Portulaca oleracea
846 Surinum Purslane Ceylon Spinach Talinum triangulare
847 Swede Rutabaga, Swedish turnip, Brassica napus (napobrassica) Mustard root
848 Sweet Basil Great basil Ocimum basilicum Lamiaceae Leafy Used for its aromatic properties in many countries.
849 Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas var. batatas Morning glory root One of the oldest cultivated crop in the world.
850 sunset muskmallow sunset hibiscus, and,
Hibiscus manihot.
Abelmoschus manihot Malvaceae Leafy In the Philippines the leaves are consumed after cooking
851 Sweet Trefoil Blue fenugreek, and  Blue melilot Trigonella caerulea Fabaceae Leafy One of the ingrident in Georgian spice mix
852 Swiss chard Ipomoea batatas root
853 Synedrella /  Cinderella Weed Synedrella nodiflora leafy
854 Tagarnina Scolymus hispanicus leafy
855 Tahitian spinach Beta vulgaris cicla (flavescens) leafy
856 Tahitian spinach/Tahitian taro Xanthosoma brasiliense leafy
857 Tall Tumble Mustard / Rosette leaves Sisymbrium altissimum leafy
858 Tamarind Tamarindus indica fruit
859 Tansy Tanacetum vulgare leafy
860 Taro Colocasia esculenta root
861 Taro Leaves Colocasia esculenta leafy
862 Tahitian spinach Xanthosoma brasiliense leafy
863 Tarwi (Tarhui / Chocho) Lupinus mutabilis seeds
864 Tatsoi Brassica rapa var. rosularis leafy
865 Tea Leaves Camellia sinensis leafy
866 Tender Jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus fruit
867 Tepary bean Phaseolus acutifolius seeds
868 Terebinth Pistacia terebinthus seeds
869 terrestrial bromeliad Puya chilensis leafy
870 Thai basil O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora leafy
871 Thai Basil Seeds Ocimum basilicum seeds
872 Thong lang Erythrina fusca flower
873 Thyme Thymus vulgaris leafy
874 Ti Cordyline fruticosa leafy
875 Tigernut Cyperus esculentus grass
876 Tinda Praecitrullus fistulosus fruit
877 Tipuho Artocarpus treculianus fruit
878 Toadshade/sessile trillium, Trillium sessile leafy
879 Tomatillo Physalis philadelphica fruit
880 Tomato Solanum lycopersicum fruit
881 Toothache Plant Spilanthes acmella leafy https://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Panicled%20Spot%20Flower.html
882 Toothbrush tree Salvadora persica leafy http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Toothbrush%20Tree.html
883 tortoise-shell bamboo Phyllostachys edulis Grass
884 Tree lettuce Pisonia grandis leafy https://mybageecha.com/products/pisonia-grandis-keeramaran
885 Tree onion Allium × proliferum bulb
886 Tree Spinach Chenopodium giganteum leafy
887 Trellis-vine Pergularia daemia leafy http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Pergularia.html
888 Trifoliate orange Poncirus trifoliata fruit
889 Triple Curled Parsley Petroselinum crispum
890 True cardamom Elettaria cardamomum fruit
891 Tumeric Curcuma longa bulb
892 Turmeric leaves Curcuma longa leafy
893 Turnip Brassica rapa (rapifera) bulb
894 Turnip greens Brassica rapa (rosularis) leafy
895 Ube (Purple yam) Dioscorea alata root
896 Udupi Gulla fruit
897 Ujuju Myrianthus arboreus fruit
898 Ulluco Ullucus tuberosus Root
899 Black Gram/Urad bean Vigna mungo Seeds
900 Vanilla Vanilla leafy
901 Variableleaf yellowcress/ Indian Field-Cress Rorippa indica seeds kaadu sasive
902 Rutabaga / Swedish turnip Brassica rapa (rapifera) bulb
903 Fiddlehead ferns (Vegetable fern) Diplazium esculentum leafy therme thoppu
904 Vegetable hummingbird (Flax seed tree) West Indian pea Sesbania grandiflora leafy
905 Veld grape Cissus quadrangularis stem
906 Velvet Beans Mucuna pruriens podded
907 Viagra palm Calamus erectus palm
908 Violet wood-sorrel Oxalis violacea leafy
909 Virginia pepperweed Lepidium virginicum leafy
910 Wakame Undaria pinnatifida leafy
911 Wake-robin Trillium erectum leafy
912 Wall lettuce Mycelis muralis leafy
913 Wasabi / Japanese horseradish Wasabia japonica root
914 Water caltrop Trapa natans Seeds
915 Water caltrop/buffalo nut Trapa bicornis leafy
916 Water Celery Oenanthe javanica leafy
917 Water chestnut Eleocharis dulcis Seeds
918 Water Lettuce Pistia stratiotes leafy
919 Water melon Citrullus Lanatus Seeds
920 Water pepper Persicaria hydropiper leafy
921 Water Snowflake Nymphoides indica leafy
922 Water Speedwell Veronica anagallis-aquatica leafy
923 Watercress Nasturtium officinale leafy
924 Water Spinach Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. leafy
925 Waterblommetjie/ Cape-pondweed, Aponogeton distachyos leafy
926 Watercress Calamus erectus palm
927 Watercress Nasturtium officinale leafy
928 Waterleaf plant Talinum fruticosum leafy
929 Watermelon Seeds Citrullus lanatus Seeds
930 Weeping Willow Salix babylonica flower
931 Welsh onion Allium fistulosum stem
932 West African pepper Piper guineense Seeds
933 West Indian gherkin Cucumis anguria fruit
934 West Indian Raspberry/Roseleaf bramble Rubus rosaefolius fruit
935 Western salsify Tragopogon dubius leafy
936 Wheat Seeds
937 Wheatgrass Grass
938 Whisky currant/Wax currant Ribes cereum leafy
939 White Clover Trifolium repens leafy
940 White Dandelion Taraxacum albidum leafy
941 White deadnettle Lamium album leafy
942 White Goosefoot/ Lamb quarter’s Chenopodium album leafy
943 white jute / East Indian mallow Corchorus capsularis leafy https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nela_Bera_(Telugu-_%E0%B0%A8%E0%B1%87%E0%B0%B2_%E0%B0%AC%E0%B1%86%E0%B0%B0)_(2875722320).jpg
944 White Mustard / Yellow mustard Sinapis alba Seeds
945 White trillium Trillium grandiflorum leafy
946 Wild Cabbage Brassica oleracea flower
947 Wild Coxcomb Celosia argentea var. argentea leafy
948 Wild Garlic/Wilde Knoflok Tulbaghia alliacea bulb
949 Wild Gourd Cucumis prophetarum fruit
950 Wild leek Allium tricoccum bulb
951 Wild Potato bulb
952 Wild radish Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. landra root
953 Winged bean Psophocarpus tetragonolobus podded
954 Winter melon Benincasa hispida Seeds
955 Woundwort Prunella vulgaris leafy
956 Yacon Smallanthus sonchifolius root
957 Yam Dioscorea root
958 Yao choy/ Common Yarrow/
Sneezewort/ Soldier’s friend/ Thousand-leaf
Achillea millefolium flower ರೋಜಮಾರಿ
959 Yardlong Beans Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis podded
960 Yarrow / Bread wheat Triticum aestivum Seeds
961 Yautia horqueta Xanthosoma caracu leafy
962 Yellow Bell Pepper Capsicum annuum Group fruit
963 Yellow Cucumber cucumis sativus fruit
964 Yellow floating heart Nymphoides peltata leafy
965 Yellow Mustard Brassica Alba Seeds
966 yellow plum/sea lemon Ximenia americana fruit
967 Yellow Zucchini Cucurbita pepo fruit
968 Yellowhorn Xanthoceras sorbifolium leafy
969 Yellowwood sorrel Oxalis corniculata leafy
970 Zucchini / Courgette / Marrow Cucurbita pepo fruit
971 Crown Daisy Edible Chrysanthemum Glebionis coronaria
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Flower Turkey
972 Catbriers, Greenbriers Smilax excelsa Flower Turkey
973 Erect Crab, Crab Apple Eriolobus trilobatus Fruit Turkey
974 White Lupin Lupinus albus Fruit Turkey
975 Serik Crab Pyrus serikensis Fruit Turkey
976 Elm-leaved Sumach Rhus coriaria Fruit Turkey
977 Barbados Gooseberry Pereskia aculeata Fruit Brazil
978 Ground Elder Aegopodium podagraria Leafy vegetable Turkey
979 Sessile Joyweed Alternanthera sessilis (Common Mukunuwenna) Leafy vegetable Sri Lanka
980 Sessile Joyweed Alternanthera sessilis (Weda Mukunuwenna) Leafy vegetable Sri Lanka
981 Malabar Spinach / Vine Basella alba Leafy vegetable Kenya
982 Sea Beet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima Leafy vegetable Turkey
983 Kale, Ethiopian Kanzera Brassica carinata Leafy vegetable Kenya
984 Shepherd’s Purse Capsella bursa-pastoris Leafy vegetable Turkey
985 Pennywort Centella asiatica Leafy vegetable Sri Lanka
986 Rush Skeletonweed Chondrilla juncea Leafy vegetable Turkey
987 Jute Mallow Chorchorus olitorius Leafy vegetable Kenya
988 Spider Plant Cleome gynandra Leafy vegetable Kenya
989 Rock Samphire, Sea Fennel Crithmum maritimum Leafy vegetable Turkey
990 Black Bryony Dioscorea communis Leafy vegetable Turkey
991 Foxtail Lily Eremurus spectabilis Leafy vegetable Turkey
992 Ferulago Ferulago trachycarpa Leafy vegetable Turkey
993 Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Leafy vegetable Turkey
994 Moringa Moringa oleifera Leafy vegetable Kenya
995 Watercress Nasturtium officinale Leafy vegetable Turkey
996 Corky-fruited Water-dropwort Oenanthe pimpinelloides Leafy vegetable Turkey
997 Yellow Herb Opopanax hispidus Leafy vegetable Turkey
998 Indian Knotgrass Polygonum cognatum Leafy vegetable Turkey
999 Purslane Portulacca oleracea Leafy vegetable Brazil
1000 Sheep’s Sorrel Rumex acetosella Leafy vegetable Turkey
1001 Curly Dock Rumex crispus Leafy vegetable Turkey
1002 Salsify Scorzonera cana Leafy vegetable Turkey
1003 Vegetable Hummingbird Flaxseed, Linseed Sesbania grandiflora Leafy vegetable Sri Lanka
1004 Bladder Campion Silene vulgaris Leafy vegetable Turkey
1005 Jewels-of-Opar Talinum paniculatum Leafy vegetable Brazil
1006 Eastern Borage Trachystemon orientalis Leafy vegetable Turkey
1007 Purple Salsify Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. longirostris Leafy vegetable Turkey
1008 Cowpea Leaves Vigna unguiculata (Kunde) Leafy vegetable Kenya
1009 Wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum Leafy vegetable Flower Turkey
1010 Alexanders, Horse Parsley Smyrnium olusatrum Leafy vegetable Flower Turkey
1011 Star of Bethlehem Ornithogalum umbellatum Leafy vegetable Rhizome
1012 Common Chicory Cichorium intybus Leafy vegetable Root and tuber Turkey
1013 Common Golden Thistle, Spanish Oyster Thistle Scolymus hispanicus Leafy vegetable Root and tuber Turkey
1014 Taioba Xanthosoma taioba Leafy vegetable Root and tuber Brazil
1015 Jelly Palm Sour Coconut Butia capitata palm Brazil
1016 Sweet Flag Calamus Acorus calamus Root and tuber Turkey
1017 Taro Colocasia esculenta Root and tuber Kenya
1018 Taro Colocasia esculenta (Gölevez) Root and tuber Turkey
1019 Yam Dioscorea alata (Angili Ala) Root and tuber Sri Lanka
1020 Yam Dioscorea alata (Rajala) Root and tuber Sri Lanka
1021 Yam Dioscorea esculenta Root and tuber Sri Lanka
1022 Yam Dioscorea pentaphylla Root and tuber Sri Lanka
1023 Indian Yam Purple Yam Dioscorea trifida Root and tuber Brazil
1024 Giant Fennel Ferula elaeochytris Root and tuber Turkey
1025 Tumbleweed Tumble Thistle, Gundelia Gundelia tournefortii Root and tuber Turkey
1026 Arrost’s Baby’s-breath Gypsophila arrostii subsp. nebulosa Root and tuber Turkey
1027 Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas Root and tuber Kenya
1028 Jurubeba Solanum paniculatum Solanaceae Root and tuber Brazil
1029 Finger Millet Eleusine coracana Seeds Sri Lanka
1030 Dark Rice Oryza sativa (Kalu Heenaty) Seeds Sri Lanka
1031 Red Rice Oryza sativa (Kurulutuda) Seeds Sri Lanka
1032 Red Rice Oryza sativa (Madathavalu) Seeds Sri Lanka
1033 Red Rice Oryza sativa (Pachchaperumal) Seeds Sri Lanka
1034 Rice Oryza sativa (Pokkali) Seeds Sri Lanka
1035 Rice Oryza sativa (Sudu Heenati) Seeds Sri Lanka
1036 Fragrant Rice Oryza sativa (Suwandel) Seeds Sri Lanka
1037 Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Seeds Kenya
1038 Einkorn Wheat Triticum monococcum Seeds Turkey
1039 Amaranth Amaranthus dubius Seeds Kenya
1040 Amburana Amburana cearensis Seeds Brazil
1041 Monkey Nut Dwarf Cashew Nut Anacardium humile Seeds Brazil
1042 Paraná Pine Araucaria angustifolia Seeds Brazil
1043 Brazil Nut Bertholletia excelsa Seeds Brazil
1044 Horse Gram Macrotylo mauniflorum (Kollu) Seeds Sri Lanka
1045 Guiana Chestnut, Malabar Chestnut Pachira aquatica Seeds Brazil
1046 Foxtail Millet Dwarf setaria, Foxtail bristle-grass,
G
iant setaria,  Green foxtail,
Italian millet,  German millet,
and, Hungarian millet.
Setaria italica Seeds This millet is the second largest culitvated of all millets in the world, used mainly in China and India.
1047 Chichá Sterculia striata Seeds Brazil
1048 Green Gram Vigna radiata Seeds Kenya
1049 Bambara Groundnut Vigna subterranea Seeds Kenya
1050 Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (Börülce) Seeds Turkey
1051 Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (Kadala) Seeds Sri Lanka
1052 Cowpea (Red) Vigna unguiculata (Red) Seeds Sri Lanka
1053 Cowpea (White) Vigna unguiculata (White) Seeds Sri Lanka
1054 Berberis Berberis crataegina Seeds Turkey
1055 Kohila Lasia spinosa Araceae leafy Sri Lanka
1056 Glasswort Salicornia emericii; Syn: Salicornia europaea Amaranthaceae leafy Turkey
1057 Mushrooms
1058 Boletu Boletus edulis Basidiomycetes/Boletale Mushroom
1059 Cep Xerocomus badius Basidiomycetes/Boletales Mushroom
1060 Chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius Basidiomycetes/Aphyllophorales Mushroom
1061 Field champignon Agaricus campester Basidiomycetes/Agaricale Mushroom
1062 Garden champignon Agaricus hortensis Basidiomycetes/Agaricale Mushroom
1063 Goat’s lip Xerocomus subtomentosus Basidiomycetes/Boletales Mushroom
1064 Morel Morchella esculenta Ascomycetes/Pezizales Mushroom
1065 Oyster Pleurotus ostreatus Pleurotaceae/Agaricales Mushroom
1066 Red Cracking Bolete Xerocomus chrysenteron Basidiomycetes/Boletales Mushroom
1067 Ringed boletus Suillus luteus Basidiomycetes/Boletales Mushroom
1068 Saffron milk cap Lactarius deliciosus Basidiomycetes/Agaricale Mushroom Turkey
1069 Truffle Tuber melanosporum Ascomycetes/Tuberale Mushroom
1070 White mushroom Button mushroom, Cultivated mushroom, Table mushroom Agaricus bisporus Agaricaceae Mushroom Most common Mushrooms cultivated and consumed in the World.
1071
1072
1073 paracress
1074 devils backbone
1075 poppy seeds
1076 vanilla
1077 multipler onion
1078 cepa
1079 white onion
1080 yellow mustard
1081 brown mustard
1082 black mustard
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102

Below is the video of one of the largest Vegetable markets in India.

Call Now Button